Ultrasonics

Author: Dale Ensminger
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0824758897
Format: PDF, Docs
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Recent advances in power electronics greatly benefit the multidisciplinary field of modern ultrasonics. More powerful, compact, and versatile electronic chips and software enable new computer-based devices for real-time data capture, storage, analysis, and display and advance the science and technology employed in commercial systems and applications of ultrasound. Reviewing the scientific basis behind these improvements, Ultrasonics: Fundamentals, Technologies, and Applications, Third Edition discusses them in detail, with new and additional figures and references, offering a completely revised and expanded examination of the state of modern ultrasonics. This new edition of a bestselling industry reference discusses the full breadth of ultrasonics applications for industrial and medical use and provides the fundamentals and insights gathered over the authors’ collective 80 years in the field. It provides a unique and comprehensive treatment of the science and technology behind the latest advancements and applications in both low and high power implementations. Coverage combines fundamental physics, a review and analysis of sensors and transducers, and the systems required for the full spectrum of industrial, nondestructive testing and medical and biomedical uses. It includes citations of numerous references and covers both main stream and the more unusual and obscure applications of ultrasound. Ultrasonics is ubiquitous in its industrial applications for sensing, NDT, and process measurements, in high power forms for processing and sonochemistry, as well as in medical procedures where it is used for diagnosis, therapy and surgery. This book provides a complete overview of the field, presenting numerous applications, cutting-edge advancements and improvements, additional figures and references, and a look at future directions.

Power Ultrasonics

Author: Juan A Gallego-Juárez
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1782420363
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The industrial interest in ultrasonic processing has revived during recent years because ultrasonic technology may represent a flexible “green alternative for more energy efficient processes. A challenge in the application of high-intensity ultrasound to industrial processing is the design and development of specific power ultrasonic systems for large scale operation. In the area of ultrasonic processing in fluid and multiphase media the development of a new family of power generators with extensive radiating surfaces has significantly contributed to the implementation at industrial scale of several applications in sectors such as the food industry, environment, and manufacturing. Part one covers fundamentals of nonlinear propagation of ultrasonic waves in fluids and solids. It also discusses the materials and designs of power ultrasonic transducers and devices. Part two looks at applications of high power ultrasound in materials engineering and mechanical engineering, food processing technology, environmental monitoring and remediation and industrial and chemical processing (including pharmaceuticals), medicine and biotechnology. Covers the fundamentals of nonlinear propagation of ultrasonic waves in fluids and solids. Discusses the materials and designs of power ultrasonic transducers and devices. Considers state-of-the-art power sonic applications across a wide range of industries.

Ultrasonics

Author: Dale Ensminger
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420020205
Format: PDF
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Gain a Unique and Comprehensive Understanding of Ultrasonics Despite its importance, most books on ultrasonics cover only very specific sub-fields of the science. They generally also take a more mathematical approach and lack the wider scope needed to truly improve understanding and facilitate practical use of ultrasonics across a wide range of disciplines. Create Efficient Systems for Any Environment Ultrasonics Data covers the science, technology, and application of ultrasonics. It discusses everything from sensors to systems, dealing primarily with both low- and high-intensity industrial and medical ultrasonic applications. It presents data and functions from different areas of science and technology to help readers better comprehend and more effectively use ultrasound energy. Starting with relevant basic ultrasonic equations, the authors explore the application of finite elements to the design of vibrating bars, horns, plates, rings, large horns, and blades. They analyze properties and design data applicable to piezoelectric materials and transducers, as well as magnetostrictive, pneumatic, and liquid transducers. The book examines the mechanical and physical properties of materials, including those necessary for welding and forming. Using practical applications, the book explores the chemical properties and compatibilities of materials, and the chemical effects of ultrasound. There is also information on nondestructive testing applications and the modern equipment used to carry them out, including electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) and lasers. A "Big-Picture" Focus on Practical Data and Principles Versatile as a reference for engineers, researchers, and graduate students, this book summarizes the history of ultrasonics, projects future advances, and evaluates the practicality of new ideas. Helping system designers meet the requirements of present and future developments, it covers a range of applications to inspire new innovations using ultrasonics.

Ultrasonic Transducers

Author: K Nakamura
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857096303
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Ultrasonic transducers are key components in sensors for distance, flow and level measurement as well as in power, biomedical and other applications of ultrasound. Ultrasonic transducers reviews recent research in the design and application of this important technology. Part one provides an overview of materials and design of ultrasonic transducers. Piezoelectricity and basic configurations are explored in depth, along with electromagnetic acoustic transducers, and the use of ceramics, thin film and single crystals in ultrasonic transducers. Part two goes on to investigate modelling and characterisation, with performance modelling, electrical evaluation, laser Doppler vibrometry and optical visualisation all considered in detail. Applications of ultrasonic transducers are the focus of part three, beginning with a review of surface acoustic wave devices and air-borne ultrasound transducers, and going on to consider ultrasonic transducers for use at high temperature and in flaw detection systems, power, biomedical and micro-scale ultrasonics, therapeutic ultrasound devices, piezoelectric and fibre optic hydrophones, and ultrasonic motors are also described. With its distinguished editor and expert team of international contributors,Ultrasonic transducers is an authoritative review of key developments for engineers and materials scientists involved in this area of technology as well as in its applications in sectors as diverse as electronics, wireless communication and medical diagnostics. Reviews recent research in the design and application of ultrasonic transducers Provides an overview of the materials and design of ultrasonic transducers, with an in-depth exploration of piezoelectricity and basic configurations Investigates modelling and characterisation, applications of ultrasonic transducers, and ultrasonic transducers for use at high temperature and in flaw detection systems

Ultrasonics

Author: H. Kuttruff
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940113846X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book is a translation of 'Physik und Technik des Ultraschalls', originally published in 1988 by S. Hirzel Verlag, Stuttgart. As in the German edition, it is based on lectures on ultrasound which the author has given over the past fifteen years to students of electrical engineer ing and physics at the Rheinisch-Westfiilische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Germany. Its purpose is to explain and describe the peculiarities of high frequency sound with general acoustics as a foundation. It is these peculiarities which have led to the development of specific methods of sound generation and sound detection on the one hand and are relevant to the way ultrasound propagates in various materials, and which are the origin of a wide range of technical applications on the other. The first part of the book is devoted to the fundamentals of ultrasonics. Since the reader is not expected to have a knowledge of general acoustics, introductory chapters survey the basic ideas and laws of acoustics without systematically deriving the formulae pre sented. Likewise, the third chapter, which deals with the radiation and diffraction of sound, is still fairly general, although it is somewhat more adapted to the specific requirements of ultrasound. In the three subsequent chapters, the generation and detection or measurement of ultrasound is dealt with. The seventh chapter is a digression on the peculiarities of the hypersonic range.

Piezoelectric Ceramics

Author: Ltd Apc International
Publisher: Apc International, Limited
ISBN: 9780615565033
Format: PDF
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APC International, Ltd.'s textbook on the principles and applications of piezoelectric ceramics covers: general principles of piezoelectricity and behavior of piezoelectric ceramic elements fundamental mathematics of piezoelectricity traditional and experimental applications for piezoelectric materials, and related physical principles for each application: audible sound producers, flow meters, fluid level sensors, motors, pumps, delay lines, transformers, other apparatus introduction to single crystals, composites, and other latest-generation piezoelectric materials Contents Introduction piezoelectricity / piezoelectric constants behavior / stability of piezoelectric ceramic elements new materials: relaxors / single crystals / others characteristics of piezoelectric materials from APC International, Ltd. Generators generators solid state batteries Sensors axial sensors flexional sensors special designs and applications: composites / SAW sensors / others Actuators axial and transverse actuators: simple / compound (stack) / multilayer flexional actuators / flextensional devices applications for piezoelectric actuators Transducers audible sound transducers generating ultrasonic vibrations in liquids or solids transmitting ultrasonic signals in air or water flow meters / fluid level sensors / delay lines / transformers / composites Miscellaneous securing a piezoelectric ceramic element attaching electrical leads testing performance Note: This is a 2nd edition to APC's textbook published in 2002. Updates in the 2nd edition reflect changes to APC's product lines and corrections outlined on the errata sheet distributed with the 2002 edition.

Fundamentals of Ultrasonic Phased Arrays

Author: Lester W. Schmerr Jr
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319072722
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book describes in detail the physical and mathematical foundations of ultrasonic phased array measurements. The book uses linear systems theory to develop a comprehensive model of the signals and images that can be formed with phased arrays. Engineers working in the field of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) will find in this approach a wealth of information on how to design, optimize and interpret ultrasonic inspections with phased arrays. The fundamentals and models described in the book will also be of significant interest to other fields, including the medical ultrasound and seismology communities. A unique feature of this book is that it presents a unified theory of imaging with phased arrays that shows how common imaging methods such as the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), the total focusing method (TFM), and the physical optics far field inverse scattering (POFFIS) imaging method are all simplified versions of more fundamental and quantitative imaging approaches, called imaging measurement models. To enhance learning, this book first describes the fundamentals of phased array systems using 2-D models, so that the complex 3-D cases normally found in practice can be more easily understood. In addition to giving a detailed discussion of phased array systems, Fundamentals of Ultrasonic Phased Arrays also provides MATLAB® functions and scripts, allowing the reader to conduct simulations of ultrasonic phased array transducers and phased array systems with the latest modeling technology.

Ultrasonic Measurements for Process Control

Author: Lawrence C. Lynnworth
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0323138039
Format: PDF, ePub
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Engineers, scientists, and technologists will find here, for the first time, a clear and comprehensive account of applications of ultrasonics in the field of process control. Using numerous examples of high-volume, low-cost applications, the author illustrates how the use of new transducer materials and designs, combined with microprocessor-based electronics, make technical and financial sense for concepts that only a few years ago might have been of interest only to academicians. Some of the important topics covered include coupling, acoustic isolation, transducer and sensor design, and signal detection in the presence of noise.

Practical Guide to the Packaging of Electronics Second Edition

Author: Ali Jamnia
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439870926
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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As the demand for packaging more electronic capabilities into smaller packages rises, product developers must be more cognizant of how the system configuration will impact its performance. Practical Guide to the Packaging of Electronics: Second Edition, Thermal and Mechanical Design and Analysis provides a basic understanding of the issues that concern the field of electronics packaging. First published in 2003, this book has been extensively updated, includes more detail where needed, and provides additional segments for clarification. This volume supplies a solid foundation for heat transfer, vibration, and life expectancy calculations. Topics discussed include various modes of heat removal, such as conduction, radiation, and convection; the impact of thermal stresses; vibration and the resultant stresses; shock management; mechanical, electrical, and chemically induced reliability; and more. Unlike many other available works, it neither assumes the reader’s familiarity with the subject nor is it so basic that the reader may lose interest. Dr. Ali Jamnia has published a large number of engineering papers and presentations and is the holder of a number of patents and patent applications. He has been involved in the issues of electronics packaging since the early ‘90s and since 1995 has worked toward the development of innovative electronics systems to aid individuals with physical or cognitive disabilities. By consulting this manual, engineers, program managers, and quality assurance managers involved in electronic systems gain a fundamental grasp of the issues involved in electronics packaging, learn how to define guidelines for a system’s design, develop the ability to identify reliability issues and concerns, and are able to conduct more complete analyses for the final design.

HVAC Water Chillers and Cooling Towers

Author: Herbert W. Stanford III
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439862117
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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HVAC Water Chillers and Cooling Towers: Fundamentals, Application, and Operation, Second Edition explores the major improvements in recent years to many chiller and cooling tower components that have resulted in improved performance and lower operating costs. This new edition looks at how climate change and "green" designs have significantly impacted the selection of refrigerants and the application of chilled water systems. It also discusses the expanded use of digital controls and variable frequency drives as well as the re-introduction of some older technologies, especially ammonia-based absorption cooling. The first half of the book focuses on water chillers and the second half addresses cooling towers. In both sections, the author includes the following material: Fundamentals—basic information about systems and equipment, including how they and their various components work Design and Application—equipment sizing, selection, and application; details of piping, control, and water treatment; and special considerations such as noise control, electrical service, fire protection, and energy efficiency Operations and Maintenance—commissioning and programmed maintenance of components and systems, with guidelines and recommended specifications for procurement This up-to-date book provides HVAC designers, building owners, operating and maintenance staff, architects, and mechanical contractors with definitive and practical guidance on the application, design, purchase, operation, and maintenance of water chillers and cooling towers. It offers helpful information for you to use on a daily basis, including checklists and troubleshooting guidelines.