The Theory of the Design of Experiments

Author: D.R. Cox
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420035835
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Why study the theory of experiment design? Although it can be useful to know about special designs for specific purposes, experience suggests that a particular design can rarely be used directly. It needs adaptation to accommodate the circumstances of the experiment. Successful designs depend upon adapting general theoretical principles to the special constraints of individual applications. Written for a general audience of researchers across the range of experimental disciplines, The Theory of the Design of Experiments presents the major topics associated with experiment design, focusing on the key concepts and the statistical structure of those concepts. The authors keep the level of mathematics elementary, for the most part, and downplay methods of data analysis. Their emphasis is firmly on design, but appendices offer self-contained reviews of algebra and some standard methods of analysis. From their development in association with agricultural field trials, through their adaptation to the physical sciences, industry, and medicine, the statistical aspects of the design of experiments have become well refined. In statistics courses of study, however, the design of experiments very often receives much less emphasis than methods of analysis. The Theory of the Design of Experiments fills this potential gap in the education of practicing statisticians, statistics students, and researchers in all fields.

Theory of Factorial Design

Author: Ching-Shui Cheng
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466505583
Format: PDF, Docs
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Bringing together both new and old results, Theory of Factorial Design: Single- and Multi-Stratum Experiments provides a rigorous, systematic, and up-to-date treatment of the theoretical aspects of factorial design. To prepare readers for a general theory, the author first presents a unified treatment of several simple designs, including completely randomized designs, block designs, and row-column designs. As such, the book is accessible to readers with minimal exposure to experimental design. With exercises and numerous examples, it is suitable as a reference for researchers and as a textbook for advanced graduate students. In addition to traditional topics and a thorough discussion of the popular minimum aberration criterion, the book covers many topics and new results not found in existing books. These include results on the structures of two-level resolution IV designs, methods for constructing such designs beyond the familiar foldover method, the extension of minimum aberration to nonregular designs, the equivalence of generalized minimum aberration and minimum moment aberration, a Bayesian approach, and some results on nonregular designs. The book also presents a theory that provides a unifying framework for the design and analysis of factorial experiments with multiple strata (error terms) arising from complicated structures of the experimental units. This theory can be systematically applied to various structures of experimental units instead of treating each on a case-by-case basis.

Statistics in the 21st Century

Author: Martin A. Tanner
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420035398
Format: PDF, Docs
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Exactly what is the state of the art in statistics as we move forward into the 21st century? What promises, what trends does its future hold? Through the reflections of 70 of the world's leading statistical methodologists, researchers, theorists, and practitioners, Statistics in the 21st Century answers those questions. Originally published in the Journal of the American Statistical Association, this collection of vignettes examines our statistical past, comments on our present, and speculates on our future. Although the coverage is broad and the topics diverse, it reveals the essential intellectual unity of the field as we see the same themes recurring in different contexts. We see how the development of statistics has been driven by the unprecedented and still growing range of applications, by the explosion in computer technology, and by the new types of data that continue to emerge and advance the discipline. Organized around major areas of application and leading up to vignettes on theory and methods, Statistics in the 21st Century forms a landmark record of the progress and perceived future of the discipline. No student, researcher, or practitioner of statistics should miss this extraordinary opportunity to view the past, present, and future world of statistics through the eyes of its foremost thinkers.

Number Theoretic Methods in Statistics

Author: Kai-Tai Fang
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780412465208
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This book is a survey of recent work on the application of number theory in statistics. The essence of number-theoretic methods is to find a set of points that are universally scattered over an s-dimensional unit cube. In certain circumstances this set can be used instead of random numbers in the Monte Carlo method. The idea can also be applied to other problems such as in experimental design. This book will illustrate the idea of number-theoretic methods and their application in statistics. The emphasis is on applying the methods to practical problems so only part-proofs of theorems are given.

Coethnicity

Author: James Habyarimana
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
ISBN: 1610446380
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Ethnically homogenous communities often do a better job than diverse communities of producing public goods such as satisfactory schools and health care, adequate sanitation, and low levels of crime. Coethnicity reports the results of a landmark study that aimed to find out why diversity has this cooperation-undermining effect. The study, conducted in a neighborhood of Kampala, Uganda, notable for both its high levels of diversity and low levels of public goods provision, hones in on the mechanisms that might account for the difficulties diverse societies often face in trying to act collectively. The Mulago-Kyebando Community Study uses behavioral games to explore how the ethnicity of the person with whom one is interacting shapes social behavior. Hundreds of local participants interacted with various partners in laboratory games simulating real-life decisions involving the allocation of money and the completion of joint tasks. Many of the subsequent findings debunk long-standing explanations for diversity’s adverse effects. Contrary to the prevalent notion that shared preferences facilitate ethnic collective action, differences in goals and priorities among participants were not found to be structured along ethnic lines. Nor was there evidence that subjects favored the welfare of their coethnics over that of non-coethnics. When given the opportunity to act altruistically, individuals did not choose to benefit coethnics disproportionately when their actions were anonymous. Yet when anonymity was removed, subjects behaved very differently. With their actions publicly observed, subjects gave significantly more to coethnics, expected their partners to reciprocate, and expected that they would be sanctioned for a failure to cooperate. This effect was most pronounced among individuals who were otherwise least likely to cooperate. These results suggest that what may look like ethnic favoritism is, in fact, a set of reciprocity norms—stronger among coethnics than among non-coethnics—that make it possible for members of more homogeneous communities to take risks, invest, and cooperate without the fear of getting cheated. Such norms may be more subject to change than deeply held ethnic antipathies—a powerful finding for policymakers seeking to design social institutions in diverse societies. Research on ethnic diversity typically draws on either experimental research or field work. Coethnicity does both. By taking the crucial step from observation to experimentation, this study marks a major breakthrough in the study of ethnic diversity. A Volume in the Russell Sage Foundation Series on Trust

Shreir s Corrosion

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444527877
Format: PDF, ePub
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This four-volume reference work builds upon the success of past editions of Elsevier’s Corrosion title (by Shreir, Jarman, and Burstein), covering the range of innovations and applications that have emerged in the years since its publication. Developed in partnership with experts from the Corrosion and Protection Centre at the University of Manchester, Shreir’s Corrosion meets the research and productivity needs of engineers, consultants, and researchers alike. Incorporates coverage of all aspects of the corrosion phenomenon, from the science behind corrosion of metallic and non-metallic materials in liquids and gases to the management of corrosion in specific industries and applications Features cutting-edge topics such as medical applications, metal matrix composites, and corrosion modeling Covers the benefits and limitations of techniques from scanning probes to electrochemical noise and impedance spectroscopy

Analysis of Repeated Measures

Author: Martin J. Crowder
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780412318306
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Repeated measures data arise when the same characteristic is measured on each case or subject at several times or under several conditions. There is a multitude of techniques available for analysing such data and in the past this has led to some confusion. This book describes the whole spectrum of approaches, beginning with very simple and crude methods, working through intermediate techniques commonly used by consultant statisticians, and concluding with more recent and advanced methods. Those covered include multiple testing, response feature analysis, univariate analysis of variance approaches, multivariate analysis of variance approaches, regression models, two-stage line models, approaches to categorical data and techniques for analysing crossover designs. The theory is illustrated with examples, using real data brought to the authors during their work as statistical consultants.

Randomised Response Adaptive Designs in Clinical Trials

Author: Anthony C Atkinson
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1584886935
Format: PDF, Docs
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Randomised Response-Adaptive Designs in Clinical Trials presents methods for the randomised allocation of treatments to patients in sequential clinical trials. Emphasizing the practical application of clinical trial designs, the book is designed for medical and applied statisticians, clinicians, and statisticians in training. After introducing clinical trials in drug development, the authors assess a simple adaptive design for binary responses without covariates. They discuss randomisation and covariate balance in normally distributed responses and cover many important response-adaptive designs for binary responses. The book then develops response-adaptive designs for continuous and longitudinal responses, optimum designs with covariates, and response-adaptive designs with covariates. It also covers response-adaptive designs that are derived by optimising an objective function subject to constraints on the variance of estimated parametric functions. The concluding chapter explores future directions in the development of adaptive designs.

Spatio temporal Design

Author: Jorge Mateu
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118441885
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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A state-of-the-art presentation of optimum spatio-temporal sampling design - bridging classic ideas with modern statistical modeling concepts and the latest computational methods. Spatio-temporal Design presents a comprehensive state-of-the-art presentation combining both classical and modern treatments of network design and planning for spatial and spatio-temporal data acquisition. A common problem set is interwoven throughout the chapters, providing various perspectives to illustrate a complete insight to the problem at hand. Motivated by the high demand for statistical analysis of data that takes spatial and spatio-temporal information into account, this book incorporates ideas from the areas of time series, spatial statistics and stochastic processes, and combines them to discuss optimum spatio-temporal sampling design. Spatio-temporal Design: Advances in Efficient Data Acquisition: Provides an up-to-date account of how to collect space-time data for monitoring, with a focus on statistical aspects and the latest computational methods Discusses basic methods and distinguishes between design and model-based approaches to collecting space-time data. Features model-based frequentist design for univariate and multivariate geostatistics, and second-phase spatial sampling. Integrates common data examples and case studies throughout the book in order to demonstrate the different approaches and their integration. Includes real data sets, data generating mechanisms and simulation scenarios. Accompanied by a supporting website featuring R code. Spatio-temporal Design presents an excellent book for graduate level students as well as a valuable reference for researchers and practitioners in the fields of applied mathematics, engineering, and the environmental and health sciences.

Statistical Evidence

Author: Richard Royall
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780412044113
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Interpreting statistical data as evidence, Statistical Evidence: A Likelihood Paradigm focuses on the law of likelihood, fundamental to solving many of the problems associated with interpreting data in this way. Statistics has long neglected this principle, resulting in a seriously defective methodology. This book redresses the balance, explaining why science has clung to a defective methodology despite its well-known defects. After examining the strengths and weaknesses of the work of Neyman and Pearson and the Fisher paradigm, the author proposes an alternative paradigm which provides, in the law of likelihood, the explicit concept of evidence missing from the other paradigms. At the same time, this new paradigm retains the elements of objective measurement and control of the frequency of misleading results, features which made the old paradigms so important to science. The likelihood paradigm leads to statistical methods that have a compelling rationale and an elegant simplicity, no longer forcing the reader to choose between frequentist and Bayesian statistics.