The Claustrum

Author: John R. Smythies
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 012404722X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The present day is witnessing an explosion of our understanding of how the brain works at all levels, in which complexity is piled on complexity, and mechanisms of astonishing elegance are being continually discovered. This process is most developed in the major areas of the brain, such as the cortex, thalamus, and striatum. The Claustrum instead focuses on a small, remote, and, until recently, relatively unknown area of the brain. In recent years, researchers have come to believe that the claustrum is concerned with consciousness, a bold hypothesis supported by the claustrum’s two-way connections with nearly every other region of the brain and its seeming involvement with multisensory integrations—the hallmark of consciousness. The claustrum, previously in a humble position at the back of the stage, might in fact be the conductor of the brain’s orchestra. The Claustrum brings together leading experts on the claustrum from the varied disciplines of neuroscience, providing a state-of-the-art presentation of what is currently known about the claustrum, promising lines of current research (including epigenetics), and projections of new lines of investigation on the horizon. Develops a unifying hypothesis about the claustrum’s role in consciousness, as well as the integration of sensory information and other higher brain functions. Discusses the involvement of the claustrum with autism, schizophrenia, epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease Coverage of all aspects of the claustrum, from its evolution and development to promising new lines of research, including epigenetics, provides a platform and point of reference for future investigative efforts

The Claustrum charting a way forward for the brain s most mysterious nucleus

Author: Ariel Y. Deutch
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889195422
Format: PDF
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The claustrum is a long, band-like grey matter structure situated in the ventrolateral telencephalon of most, if not all, mammalian brains. Due to its shape and close proximity to white matter structures and insular cortex, the anatomy and behavioral relevance of the claustrum have proven difficult to study. As a result, disagreements in the literature exist over ontogeny, phylogeny, anatomical boundaries, and connectivity. Despite this, it is generally regarded that the claustrum contains excitatory projection neurons that reciprocally connect to most regions of the cerebral cortex, a feature that has fostered varying hypotheses as to its function. These hypotheses propose multisensory integration, coordination of cortical activity for the generation of conscious percepts, or saliency filtration. The articles of this e-book consider the historical and recent highlights in claustrum structure, hodology, and function and seek to provide a compelling way forward for this “hidden” nucleus.

Neuroimaging Anatomy Meets Function

Author: Nivedita Agarwal
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319574272
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book combines classic MR anatomy with current understanding of human brain function. Recent advances in neuroscience have highlighted the importance of correlating brain anatomy with underlying brain function, since the brain contains a highly sophisticated organization of anatomical and functional relationships that are not readily “visible” with standard imaging. The use of magnetic resonance imaging is rapidly increasing in the field of neuroscience, and remains at the forefront for offering insights into the normal and pathologic structure and function of the human brain. The relatively recent concepts of structural and functional connectivity make it even more important to visualize the brain as a whole rather than looking at its individual parts. This holistic approach is vital in understanding concepts such as neuroplasticity that are currently incorporated into physical and cognitive rehabilitation programs for patients with stroke or neurodegenerative diseases. Ultimately this combined approach may reduce both overdiagnosis and misdiagnosis when integrated into routine clinical routine. This book will be of interest to neuroradiologists, general radiologists and neurologists alike, as well as medical students, residents and fellows.

Atlas of Functional Neuroanatomy Third Edition

Author: Walter Hendelman, M.D.
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466585358
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Understanding how the brain is organized and visualizing its pathways and connections can be conceptually challenging. The Atlas of Functional Neuroanatomy, Third Edition addresses this challenge by presenting a clear visual guide to the human central nervous system (CNS). This edition has been completely reorganized to facilitate learning the structure and function of the CNS. The material provided gives you a solid understanding of the brain. This edition: Presents an instructive format that fosters a thorough understanding of complex neuroanatomy, emphasizing the functional perspective and supplemented with clinical aspects Incorporates enhanced illustrations, retaining the selective labeling of the nuclei and tracts (pathways) Includes new material explaining the visual system, meninges, venous system, and limbic system Features a substantial increase in the number of neuroradiological (CT and MRI) images An accompanying Web site (www.atlasbrain.com) includes the book’s illustrations along with rollover labeling, animation of the pathways and connections, a glossary, and narrated video demonstrations of the brain.

Windows to the Brain

Author: Robin A. Hurley
Publisher: American Psychiatric Pub
ISBN: 1585628816
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Windows to the Brain is the only book to synthesize neuroanatomical and imaging research as it pertains to selected neuropsychiatric diseases, containing all of the "Windows to the Brain" papers published from 1999-2006 in the Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. These reader-friendly summaries by more than sixty contributors present modern imaging techniques that assist in the diagnosis of neuropsychiatric illness, enhanced by easily understood color graphics of the neuroanatomical circuits of behavior, memory, and emotion. They provide a basic understanding of how to apply a variety of imaging techniques to the study of adult neuropsychiatric disease and how to use neuroimaging to assist in diagnostic work-ups for conditions ranging from sleep disorders to epilepsy to borderline personality. Integrated, color-coded graphics present functional anatomical information in a manner that promotes understanding and use in clinical practice, while the text encompasses a wide range of diseases and injuries across the adult lifespan. The book is organized into four sections that will help readers increase their appreciation of the wide range of research and clinical applications for imaging in neuropsychiatry: chapters on imaging techniques discuss underlying principles, strengths and weaknesses, and applications; chapters on specific diseases demonstrate a range of investigative techniques; anatomy/circuit chapters focus on particular brain structures or functional neuropsychiatric circuits; and final chapters present image-based approaches to understanding or selecting treatment options. Some of the applications described are: Use of fMRI in posttraumatic stress disorder to reveal the delicate balance between the structures of the emotion and memory tracks; Use of high-resolution MRI and nuclear imaging to distinguish between panic disorder and simple partial seizure disorder; Use of functional imaging studies to detect corticobasal degeneration, as a means of better understanding dementia; Use of newer imaging techniques in identifying progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, to enable more rapid and reliable tailoring of individual therapy for HIV; Use of functional neuroimaging in the study of fear, in order to better understand and treat anxiety-based psychiatric disorders; Use of neuroimaging studies in conversion disorder, showing implications for the disruption of selfhood in dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia; Use of FDG-PET scans to look for predictors of treatment response in childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder. Windows to the Brain can help bring less-experienced readers up to speed on advanced imaging and anatomical details that pertain to the modern practice of neuropsychiatry. It is must-reading for specialists in neuropsychiatry and cognitive/behavioral neurology, or for general psychiatrists with an interest in neuroimaging.

The Little Black Book of Neuropsychology

Author: Mike R. Schoenberg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387769783
Format: PDF, Kindle
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From translating the patient’s medical records and test results to providing recommendations, the neuropsychological evaluation incorporates the science and practice of neuropsychology, neurology, and psychological sciences. The Little Black Book of Neuropsychology brings the practice and study of neuropsychology into concise step-by-step focus—without skimping on scientific quality. This one-of-a-kind assessment reference complements standard textbooks by outlining signs, symptoms, and complaints according to neuropsychological domain (such as memory, language, or executive function), with descriptions of possible deficits involved, inpatient and outpatient assessment methods, and possible etiologies. Additional chapters offer a more traditional approach to evaluation, discussing specific neurological disorders and diseases in terms of their clinical features, neuroanatomical correlates, and assessment and treatment considerations. Chapters in psychometrics provide for initial understanding of brain-behavior interpretation as well as more advanced principals for neuropsychology practice including new diagnostic concepts and analysis of change in performance over time. For the trainee, beginning clinician or seasoned expert, this user-friendly presentation incorporating ‘quick reference guides’ throughout which will add to the practice armentarium of beginning and seasoned clinicians alike. Key features of The Black Book of Neuropsychology: Concise framework for understanding the neuropsychological referral. Symptoms/syndromes presented in a handy outline format, with dozens of charts and tables. Review of basic neurobehavioral examination procedure. Attention to professional issues, including advances in psychometrics and diagnoses, including tables for reliable change for many commonly used tests. Special “Writing Reports like You Mean It” section and guidelines for answering referral questions. Includes appendices of practical information, including neuropsychological formulary. The Little Black Book of Neuropsychology is an indispensable resource for the range of practitioners and scientists interested in brain-behavior relationships. Particular emphasis is provided for trainees in neuropsychology and neuropsychologists. However, the easy to use format and concise presentation is likely to be of particular value to interns, residents, and fellows studying neurology, neurological surgery, psychiatry, and nurses. Finally, teachers of neuropsychological and neurological assessment may also find this book useful as a classroom text. "There is no other book in the field that covers the scope of material that is inside this comprehensive text. The work might be best summed up as being a clinical neuropsychology postdoctoral residency in a book, with the most up to date information available, so that it is also an indispensible book for practicing neuropsychologists in addition to students and residents...There is really no book like this available today. It skillfully brings together the most important foundationsof clinical neuropsychology with the 'nuts and bolts' of every facet of assessment. It also reminds the more weathered neuropsychologists among us of the essential value of neuropsychological assessment...the impact of the disease on the patient’s cognitive functioning and behavior may only be objectively quantified through a neuropsychological assessment." Arch Clin Neuropsychol (2011) first published online June 13, 2011 Read the full review acn.oxfordjournals.org

The Hippocampus Book

Author: Per Andersen
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195100271
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The hippocampus is one of a group of remarkable structures embedded within the brain's medial temporal lobe. Long known to be important for memory, it has been a prime focus of neuroscience research for many years. The Hippocampus Book brings together contributions by leading international scientists knowledgeable about hippocampal anatomy, physiology, and function. This authoritative volume offers the most comprehensive, up-to-date account of what the hippocampus does, how it does it and what happens when things go wrong. At the same time, it illustrates how research focusing on this single brain structure has revealed principles of wider generality for the whole brain.

Disorders of Synaptic Plasticity and Schizophrenia

Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0080548628
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Schizophrenia is a severe brain disorder that affects 1% of the population. Its cause is due to the interaction of a number of abnormal genes with environmental factors. This book summarizes new advances schizophrenia research that focus on the field of neural and synaptic plasticity. Synapses in the brain in schizophrenia show a wide range of disorders, both structural and functional. This volume covers the most active and promising of these new developments, and opens up new avenues for the treatment of schizophrenia. * Addresses new areas of research in neurotransmitters, receptors, vitamin transport, metabolism, and signaling. * Reviews the growing field of synaptic plasticity research * Provides links with other diseases of the Central Nervous System (CNS)

Anatomy of Neuropsychiatry

Author: Lennart Heimer
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080555126
Format: PDF, Docs
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Anatomy of Neuropsychiatry presents the anatomical systems that take part in the scientific and clinical study of emotional functions and neuropsychiatric disorders. It discusses the limbic system—the cortical and subcortical structures in the human brain involved in emotion, motivation, and emotional association with memory—at length and how this is no longer a useful guide to the study of psychiatric disorders. The book provides an understanding of brain anatomy, with an emphasis on the new anatomical framework which has emerged during the last quarter century. The goal is to help the reader develop an understanding of the gross anatomical organization of the human forebrain. A re-evaluation of brain anatomy, with an emphasis on the new anatomical framework which has emerged during the last quarter century A compellingly expanded conceptualization of Broca's famous limbic lobe Clinical and basic science boxes highlighting specific concepts, structures, or neuronal circuits from a clinical perspective