Power to Gas Technology and Business Models

Author: Markus Lehner
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319039954
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Increased production of energy from renewable sources leads to a need for both new and enhanced capacities for energy transmission and intermediate storage. The book first compares different available storage options and then introduces the power-to-gas concept in a comprehensive overview of the technology. The state of the art, advancements, and future requirements for both water electrolysis and methanation are described. The integration of renewable hydrogen and methane into the gas grid is discussed in terms of the necessary technological measures to be taken. Because the power-to-gas system is very flexible, providing numerous specific applications for different targets within the energy sector, possible business models are presented on the basis of various process chains taking into account different plant scales and operating scenarios. The influence of the scale and the type of the integration of the technology into the existing energy network is highlighted with an emphasis on economic consequences. Finally, legal aspects of the operation and integration of the power-to-gas system are discussed.

Spain s Photovoltaic Revolution

Author: Pedro A. Prieto
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441994378
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI or EROEI) is the amount of energy acquired from a particular energy source divided by the energy expended, or invested, in obtaining that energy. EROI is an essential and seemingly simple measure of the usable energy or “energy profit” from the exploitation of an energy source, but it is not so easy to determine all of the energy expenditures that should be included in the calculation. Because EROI values are generally low for renewable energy sources, differences in these estimates can lead to sharply divergent conclusions about the viability of these energy technologies. This book presents the first complete energy analysis of a large-scale, real-world deployment of photovoltaic (PV) collection systems representing 3.5 GW of installed, grid-connected solar plants in Spain. The analysis includes all of the factors that limit and adjust the real electricity output through one full-year cycle, and all of the fossil fuel inputs required to achieve these results. The authors’ comprehensive analysis of energy inputs, which assigns energy cost estimates to all financial expenditures, yields EROI values that are less than half of those claimed by other investigators and by the solar industry. Sensitivity analysis is used to test various assumptions in deriving these EROI estimates. The results imply that the EROI of current, large-scale PV systems may be too low to seamlessly support an energy and economic transition away from fossil fuels. Given the pervasiveness of fossil fuel subsidies in the modern economy, a key conclusion is that all components of the system that brings solar power to the consumer, from manufacturing to product maintenance and life cycle, must be improved in terms of energy efficiency. The materials science of solar conversion efficiency is only one such component. Sunny Spain represented an ideal case study as the country had the highest penetration of solar PV energy at 2.3 percent of total national demand as well as state-of-the-art expertise in solar power including grid management of intermittent, modern renewable systems. This book, written by a uniquely qualified author team consisting of the chief engineer for several major photovoltaic projects in Spain and the world’s leading expert on the concept and application of EROI, provides a comprehensive understanding of the net energy available to society from energy sources in general and from functioning PV installations under real-world conditions in particular. The authors provide critical insight into the capacity of renewable energy sources to fill the foreseeable gap between world energy demand and depletion rates for fossil fuels. · Presents the first comprehensive study of the EROI of large-scale solar PV systems in a developed country · Uses real-world operational data rather than laboratory approximations and extrapolations · Describes the dependence of one alternative energy source on the goods and services of a fossil-fueled economy · Has global implications for the potential of renewable energy sources to replace dwindling reserves of fossil fuels · Written with the first-hand knowledge of the chief, on-site engineer for many solar installations in Spain together with the leader in the development and application of the concept of EROI

Understanding the Bigger Energy Picture

Author: Michael Düren
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319579665
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book focuses on the global cycles of energy, water and carbon, which are not only the essentials of our main energy carriers, the fossil fuels, but are also the building blocks of life. The book offers an overview of the basic scientific facts and relationships that are needed to understand today’s energy generation and use, how they relate to global climate, the water cycle and other resources, and the complexities of energy policy. Building on the work of the Desertec project, it presents the main technological options that we will have in a world after the “Energiewende” and presents the possible future solutions for a sustainable world. The book is written in an engaging, descriptive style that can be understood by those without specific knowledge of science or economics and allows readers to form their own conclusions. Controversy rages over energy problems, climate change and their possible solutions. Expressions like “climate deniers”, “renaissance of nuclear energy”, “stop the war on coal”, and “Energiewende now” represent a diversity of opinions that divide our society and political leaders. This book shows the reader the whole energy picture and how it is part of the wider global problems of overpopulation and uncontrolled economies in a world of limited resources.

Biogas Energy

Author: Tasneem Abbasi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461410409
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In recent years, the importance of biogas energy has risen manifold and has become universal. This is due to the realization that biogas capture and utilization has great potential in controlling global warming. By capturing biogas wherever it is formed, we not only tap a source of clean energy, but we also prevent the escape of methane to the atmosphere. Given that methane has 25 times greater global warming potential than CO2, methane capture through biogas energy in this manner can contribute substantially towards global warming control.

Modeling the Renewable Energy Transition in Canada

Author: Tanveer Ahmed
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319315056
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The work demonstrates a techno-economic model of power generation for the cost-effective integration of renewable energy sources, with the goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Canada. The methodological approach outlined by the author is based on periodic simulation of price variations. The result demonstrates that a 10% transition to renewable energy generation is possible, practical and affordable when supported by an effective policy framework that does not need to introduce a feed-in tariff or loan-based financial mode.

Energy in Australia

Author: Graham Palmer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319029401
Format: PDF, Kindle
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With rapidly declining costs and seemingly unlimited sunshine, the choice of solar in Australia seems obvious. Yet despite its many advantages, homes with solar remain completely dependent on the electricity grid for reliable supply, which in Australia implies mostly coal-fired generation. Indeed, even countries that have invested heavily in solar, such as Spain and Germany, have been unable to deflect the trajectory of fossil fuel dependence. The reasons for this apparent paradox are varied, and this book provides a deeper and more nuanced understanding of the practical applications of photovoltaics (PV) in modern electricity systems. While the conventional life-cycle assessment (LCA) boundaries as prescribed by the IEA-PVPS provide a consistent methodology for comparing evolving PV technologies, the narrow boundaries exclude many critical downstream energy costs. Similarly, simple cost comparisons of PV versus conventional power sources overlook the significant economic and energy costs of intermittency and grid integration. Yet distributed storage, which could provide potentially valuable network support, is frequently given a low priority by advocates of solar. Treating PV as an extension of, rather than as a substitute for, the fossil fuel enterprise enables a more productive discussion of PV’s potential role in electricity generation. The sunburnt country of Australia, which has a modern electricity system, is an ideal case study for exploring the potential of solar PV. With a focus on rooftop solar, energy storage, grid integration, and electricity system issues, Energy in Australia offers valuable insights into the practical challenges of solar power. Although many national economies are already confronting a downward trend in energy return on investment (EROI) of oil and gas from both conventional and unconventional sources, the large-scale deployment of low-emission energy sources that lie below a critical minimum EROI threshold may ultimately prove counter-productive.

Sustainable Energy Resources and Economics in Iceland and Greenland

Author: Helga Kristjánsdóttir
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319151746
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book provides fascinating examples of the ways renewable and sustainable energy can support economic growth, which will be illuminating for academic researchers and students, as well as those interested in green investment opportunities. The distinctive glacial, volcanic and oceanic environments of Iceland and Greenland supply abundant renewable energy resources in the form of hydropower and geothermal energy. As one of the few nations in the world with 100% renewable electricity production, Iceland is a compelling case study of a sustainable energy driven economy. Consideration of Greenland provides an interesting contrast, as its enormous potential for hydropower scale-up has only been minimally harnessed. The variable and fixed cost factors governing further expansion and export of the regions’ sustainable power via sub-sea cable are detailed.

Up to Date Waste to Energy Approach

Author: Petr Stehlik
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319154672
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Putting forward an up-to-date waste-to-energy approach that combines experience, sophisticated modeling and technical-economic analysis, this book examines the current need for the maximum utilization of energy from waste and the associated environmental impacts. It outlines step-by-step procedures for a complex and original waste-to-energy approach from the idea to its industrial application. With waste incinerators and industrial plants producing large amounts of pollutants, municipalities as well as smaller decentralized operations are beginning to focus on waste research. The principal advantage of utilizing research findings is the ability to apply a complex approach “from idea to industrial implementation” with respect to the needs of the market established by thorough market analysis. This book builds on this concept with an original approach that takes into consideration geographical aspects, the specifics of regions/micro-regions and technological units and/or equipment. Key areas discussed and analyzed in the text include: strategic planning of energy-source locations according to the nature of the respective region or microregion; types and amounts of wastes; logistics etc. using original mathematical models; consideration of on-site processing of various types of waste, taking into account the character of the region (agricultural, industrial etc.); tailor-made technologies for energy recovery from various types of wastes; implementation of individual technologies with original elements; and support for environmental protection based on advanced flue gas (i.e. off-gas in the case of incineration) cleaning methods.

When Trucks Stop Running

Author: Alice J. Friedemann
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319263757
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In lively and engaging language, this book describes our dependence on freight transport and its vulnerability to diminishing supplies and high prices of oil. Ships, trucks, and trains are the backbone of civilization, hauling the goods that fulfill our every need and desire. Their powerful, highly-efficient diesel combustion engines are exquisitely fine-tuned to burn petroleum-based diesel fuel. These engines and the fuels that fire them have been among the most transformative yet disruptive technologies on the planet. Although this transportation revolution has allowed many of us to fill our homes with global goods even a past emperor would envy, our era of abundance, and the freight transport system in particular, is predicated on the affordability and high energy density of a single fuel, oil. This book explores alternatives to this finite resource including other liquid fuels, truck and locomotive batteries and utility-scale energy storage technology, and various forms of renewable electricity to support electrified transport. Transportation also must adapt to other challenges: Threats from climate change, financial busts, supply-chain failure, and transportation infrastructure decay. Robert Hirsch, who wrote the “Peaking of World Oil Production” report for the U.S. Department of Energy in 2005, said that planning for peak world production must start at least 10, if not 20 years ahead of time. What little planning exists focuses mainly on how to accommodate 30 percent more economic growth while averting climate change, ignoring the possibility that we are at, or near, the end of growth. Taken for granted, the modern transportation system will not endure forever. The time is now to take a realistic and critical look at the choices ahead, and how the future of transportation may unfold.

Gas Transport in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Author: Weidong He
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319097377
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary research and emerging measurement technologies associated with gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells. Within these pages, an introduction to the concept of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells is presented. This book also discusses the history and underlying fundamental mechanisms of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells, general theoretical mathematical models for gas diffusion, and traditional and advanced techniques for gas diffusivity measurement.