Policing and Punishing the Drinking Driver

Author: Ross Homel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468470779
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Policing and Punishing the Drinking Driver is at one level about the impact of specific drinking-driving countermeasures (punishments imposed by courts on convicted offenders and random breath testing) in a particular place (New South Wales, Australia) in two particular years (1972 and 1983). At another level, however, the research reported herein is concerned with general questions of deterrence, and with the impact of the criminal justice system on the perception and behavior of a broad cross-section of the population. In contrast to much of the research in the drink-drive field, the research questions concentrate on the psychological and sociological processes whereby behavior is altered in the short-term as the result of a massive legal intervention or as the result of the routine imposition of legal punishments.

Routine Activity and Rational Choice

Author: R. V. G. Clarke
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 9781560000877
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Two new criminological approaches are defined and applied to categories of crime in Routine Activity and Rational Choice, now available in paperback. Routine activity analyzes the criminal event, and avoids motivations and psychology as topics for discussion, whereas rational choice approaches crime as purposive behavior designed to meet the offender's commonplace needs, such as money, status, sex, and excitement. These conceptual models are both employed to analyze such crimes as drunk driving, gun use, kidnapping, and political violence. This volume discusses the relationship of these theories to more traditional approaches to crime studies. The Advances in Criminological Theory series encourages theory construction and validation in the articles and themes selected for publication. It also furthers the free exchange of ideas, propositions, and postulates. Following publication of the first volume, Michael J. Lynch of Florida State University asserted that "Advances in Criminological Theory is to be applauded as an attempt to revive criminological theory by providing an accessible outlet." Contributions to this volume include: Pierre Tremblay, "Searching for Suitable Co-offenders"; Raymond Paternoster and Sally Simpson, "A Rational Choice Theory of Corporate Crime"; Richard B. Felson, "Predatory and Dispute-related Violence"; Gordon Trasler, "Conscience, Opportunity, Rational Choice, and Crime"; Ezzat A. Fattah, "The Rational Choice/Opportunity Perspectives as a Vehicle for Integrating Criminological and Victimological Theories"; Patricia L. Brantingham and Paul J. Brantingham, "Environment, Routine, and Situation"; Maurice Cusson, "A Strategic Analysis of Crime"; Richard W. Harding, "Gun Use in Crime, Rational Choice, and Social Learning Theory."

Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory

Author: Francis T. Cullen
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1412959187
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For a free 30-day online trial to this title, visit www.sagepub.com/freetrial This two-volume set is designed to serve as a reference source for anyone interested in the roots of contemporary criminological theory. Drawing together a team of international scholars, it examines the global landscape of all the key theories and the theorists behind them, presenting them in a context needed to understand their strengths and weaknesses. The work provides essays on cutting-edge research as well as concise, to-the-point definitions of key concepts, ideas, schools, and figures. Topics include contexts and concepts in criminological theory, the social construction of crime, policy implications of theory, diversity and intercultural contexts, conflict theory, rational choice theories, conservative criminology, feminist theory, and more. Key ThemesThe Classical School of CriminologyThe Positivist School of CriminologyEarly American Theories of CrimeBiological and Biosocial Theories of CrimePsychological Theories of CrimeThe Chicago School of CriminologyCultural and Learning Theories of CrimeAnomie and Strain Theories of Crime and DevianceControl Theories of CrimeLabeling and Interactionist Theories of CrimeTheories of the Criminal SanctionConflict, Radical, and Critical Theories of CrimeFeminist and Gender-Specific Theories of CrimeChoice and Opportunity Theories of CrimeMacro-Level/ Community Theories of CrimeLife-Course and Developmental Theories of CrimeIntegrated Theories of CrimeTheories of White-Collar and Corporate CrimeContemporary Gang TheoriesTheories of Prison Behavior and InsurgencyTheories of Fear and Concern About Crime

Urban Crime Criminals and Victims

Author: Per-Olof H. Wikström
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146139077X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Crime is largely an urban phenomenon, but the specifically urban and area dimen sions of the social processes that are connected with crime have been seriously understated in much recent criminological work ... Such a claim could not have been made forty years ago. (Baldwin & Bottoms, 1976, p. 1). The above statement by Baldwin and Bottoms about the neglect in crimi nology of the urban dimension of crime was made in the mid-1970s. However, in the last decade there has been a significant upswing in theory and research on crime in the urban environment. Also, new areas oftheory and research into urban crime have come into focus. (For overviews see Brantingham & Brantingham, 1984; Davidson, 1981.) One very good example of the increasing interest in urban crime is the recent volume of Crime and Justice entitled "Communities and Crime" (Reiss & Tonry, 1986), in which Reiss makes a strong argument for the importance of the study of crime in urban communities and for the linking of the ecological and individual traditions in theory and research on crime. A review of the literature on crime in urban environments shows, not unexpectedly, that Anglo-American research heavily dominates the scene (Wikstrom, 1982; 1987b). Hence, much of the experience we have on urban crime is based on North American and British research and theory.

Male Criminal Activity from Childhood Through Youth

Author: Marc Le Blanc
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461235707
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Male Criminal Activity From Childhood Through Youth reports the results of a large longitudinal study from 1972 to 1985 on a sample of delinquents and a comparison sample of the population in Montreal. A clarification emerges from this extensive study: how to describe criminal activity in a comprehensive theory of crime which integrates the offense, offending, and patterns of offending. Using a developmental approach, Drs. Le Blanc and Fréchette observed a gradation of crimes with subjects progressing through five distinct stages of offending. In all, the research investigates the factors that sustain the development of offending and the mechanisms which accelerate, stabilize, and decelerate the commission of crimes. This book represents a significant advance in the understanding of the development of criminal activity.