Microbial Extracellular Polymeric Substances

Author: Jost Wingender
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642601472
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are the key components for the aggregation of microorganisms in biofilms, flocs and sludge. They are composed of polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and other biological macromolecules. EPS provide a highly hydrated gel matrix in which microbial cells can establish stable synergistic consortia. Cohesion and adhesion as well as morphology, structure, biological function and other properties such as mechanical stability, diffusion, sorption and optical properties of microbial aggregates are determined by the EPS matrix. Also, the protection of biofilm organisms against biocides is attributed to the EPS. Their matrix allows phase separation in biofiltration and is also important for the degradation of particulate material which is of great importance for the self purification processes in surface waters and for waste water treatment.

The Perfect Slime

Author: Hans-Curt Flemming
Publisher: IWA Publishing
ISBN: 1780407416
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The Perfect Slime presents the latest state of knowledge and all aspects of the Extracellular Polymeric Substances, (EPS) matrix – from the ecological and health to the antifouling perspectives. The book brings together all the current material in order to expand our understanding of the functions, properties and characteristics of the matrix as well as the possibilities to strengthen or weaken it. The EPS matrix represents the immediate environment in which biofilm organisms live. From their point of view, this matrix has paramount advantages. It allows them to stay together for extended periods and form synergistic microconsortia, it retains extracellular enzymes and turns the matrix into an external digestion system and it is a universal recycling yard, it protects them against desiccation, it allows for intense communication and represents a huge genetic archive. They can remodel their matrix, break free and eventually, they can use it as a nutrient source. The EPS matrix can be considered as one of the emergent properties of biofilms and are a major reason for the success of this form of life. Nevertheless, they have been termed the “black matter of biofilms” for good reasons. First of all: the isolation methods define the results. In most cases, only water soluble EPS components are investigated; insoluble ones such as cellulose or amyloids are much less included. In particular in environmental biofilms with many species, it is difficult to impossible isolate, separate the various EPS molecules they are encased in and to define which species produced which EPS. The regulation and the factors which trigger or inhibit EPS production are still very poorly understood. Furthermore: bacteria are not the only microorganisms to produce EPS. Archaea, Fungi and algae can also form EPS. This book investigates the questions, What is their composition, function, dynamics and regulation? What do they all have in common?

Biofilms in Bioremediation

Author: Gavin Lear
Publisher: Caister Academic Press
ISBN: 1910190306
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The microbial bioremediation of contaminants is cost effective and reliable and a number of approaches are in widespread commercial use. Microbial bioremediation makes use of the metabolic activities of biofilm-dwelling microorganisms which are responsible for the majority of pollutant degradation in natural environments. In this book, renowned scientists from around the world provide up-to-date and authoritative reviews of the latest scientific research that has contributed to our understanding of the vital importance of microbial biofilms for the biological remediation of contaminated environments. The results of a variety of key case studies are presented to highlight the broad range of treatment approaches and applications at our disposal. In addition, the authors discuss the future trends and likely growth areas in biofilm-related research. This comprehensive volume is indispensable for anyone involved in bioremediation, biofilm research or environmental microbiology. It is also recommended as a reference work for all microbiology libraries.

Microbial Glycobiology

Author: Anthony P Moran
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080923246
Format: PDF
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This book presents in an easy-to-read format a summary of the important central aspects of microbial glycobiology, i.e. the study of carbohydrates as related to the biology of microorganisms. Microbial glycobiology represents a multidisciplinary and emerging area with implications for a range of basic and applied research fields, as well as having industrial, medical and biotechnological implications. Individual chapters provided by leading international scientists in the field yield insightful, concise and stimulating reviews Provides researchers with an overview and synthesis of the latest research Each chapter begins with a brief 200 word Summary/Abstract detailing the topic and focus of the chapter, as well as the concepts to be addressed Allows researchers to see at a glance what each chapter will cover Each chapter includes a Research Focus Box Identifies important problems that still need to be solved and areas that require further investigation

Biofilm Eradication and Prevention

Author: Tamilvanan Shunmugaperumal
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118043554
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Biofilm Eradication and Preventions presents the basics of biofilm formation on medical devices, diseases related to this formation, and approaches pharmaceutical researchers need to take to limit this problem. Split into three parts, the first deals with the development and characterization of biofilm on the surfaces of implanted or inserted medical devices. Questions as to why biofilms form over medical device surfaces and what triggers biofilm formation are addressed. In the second section, the author discusses biofilm-mediated chronic infections occurred in various organs (eyes, mouth, wounds) and pharmaceutical and drug delivery knowledge gained from research in these area. The third part explores pharmaceutical approaches like lipid-and polymer-based drug delivery carriers for eradicating biofilm on device-related infections. In addition, this section also explores the topic of novel small molecule (like iron and its complexes/metal chelators) and a quorum-sensing inhibitors to control medical biofilm formation.

Frontiers in Geochemistry

Author: Russell Harmon
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444329979
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book is a contribution to the International Year of Planet Earth arising from the 33rd International Geological Congress, held in Oslo, Norway during August 2008. The first section of the book considers aspects of geochemical processes which led to the development of the solid Earth as it is today. The second portion of the book shows how the rapidly-evolving analytical tools and approaches presently used by geochemists may be used to solve emerging environmental and other societal problems. This unique collection of reviews, with contributions from a range of internationally distinguished scientists, will be invaluable reading for advanced students and others interested in the central role geochemistry in the earth sciences.

Microbial Enzymes in Aquatic Environments

Author: Ryszard J. Chrost
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146123090X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Organic matter in aquatic environments consists mostly of large compounds which cannot be taken up and utilized directly by microbial cells. Prior to incorporation, polymeric materials undergo degradation by cell-bound and extracellular enzymes produced by these microbes; in fact, such enzymatic mobilization and transformation is the key process which regulates the turnover of organic as well as inorganic compounds in aquatic environments. This volume brings together studies on enzymatic degradation processes from disciplines as diverse as water and sediment research, bacterial and algal aquatic ecophysiology, eutrophication, and nutrient cycling and biogeochemistry, in both freshwater and marine ecosystems. Its scope extends from fundamental research exploring the contribution of microbial enzymatic processes to whole ecosystem functioning to practical applications in water biotechnology. The first comprehensive publication providing an overview of this emerging field of enzymology, Microbial Enzymes in Aquatic Environments will be of great interest to ecologists and microbiologists alike.