Introduction to the Basic Concepts of Modern Physics

Author: Carlo Maria Becchi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319206303
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This is the third edition of a well-received textbook on modern physics theory. This book provides an elementary but rigorous and self-contained presentation of the simplest theoretical framework that will meet the needs of undergraduate students. In addition, a number of examples of relevant applications and an appropriate list of solved problems are provided.Apart from a substantial extension of the proposed problems, the new edition provides more detailed discussion on Lorentz transformations and their group properties, a deeper treatment of quantum mechanics in a central potential, and a closer comparison of statistical mechanics in classical and in quantum physics. The first part of the book is devoted to special relativity, with a particular focus on space-time relativity and relativistic kinematics. The second part deals with Schrödinger's formulation of quantum mechanics. The presentation concerns mainly one-dimensional problems, but some three-dimensional examples are discussed in detail. The third part addresses the application of Gibbs’ statistical methods to quantum systems and in particular to Bose and Fermi gases.

Basic Concepts in Physics

Author: Masud Chaichian
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642195989
Format: PDF, ePub
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"Basic Concepts in Physics: From the Cosmos to Quarks" is the outcome of the authors' long and varied teaching experience in different countries and for different audiences, and gives an accessible and eminently readable introduction to all the main ideas of modern physics. The book’s fresh approach, using a novel combination of historical and conceptual viewpoints, makes it ideal complementary reading to more standard textbooks. The first five chapters are devoted to classical physics, from planetary motion to special relativity, always keeping in mind its relevance to questions of contemporary interest. The next six chapters deal mainly with newer developments in physics, from quantum theory and general relativity to grand unified theories, and the book concludes by discussing the role of physics in living systems. A basic grounding in mathematics is required of the reader, but technicalities are avoided as far as possible; thus complex calculations are omitted so long as the essential ideas remain clear. The book is addressed to undergraduate and graduate students in physics and will also be appreciated by many professional physicists. It will likewise be of interest to students, researchers and teachers of other natural sciences, as well as to engineers, high-school teachers and the curious general reader, who will come to understand what physics is about and how it describes the different phenomena of Nature. Not only will readers of this book learn much about physics, they will also learn to love it.

Statistical Approach to Quantum Field Theory

Author: Andreas Wipf
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 364233105X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Over the past few decades the powerful methods of statistical physics and Euclidean quantum field theory have moved closer together, with common tools based on the use of path integrals. The interpretation of Euclidean field theories as particular systems of statistical physics has opened up new avenues for understanding strongly coupled quantum systems or quantum field theories at zero or finite temperatures. Accordingly, the first chapters of this book contain a self-contained introduction to path integrals in Euclidean quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. The resulting high-dimensional integrals can be estimated with the help of Monte Carlo simulations based on Markov processes. The most commonly used algorithms are presented in detail so as to prepare the reader for the use of high-performance computers as an “experimental” tool for this burgeoning field of theoretical physics. Several chapters are then devoted to an introduction to simple lattice field theories and a variety of spin systems with discrete and continuous spins, where the ubiquitous Ising model serves as an ideal guide for introducing the fascinating area of phase transitions. As an alternative to the lattice formulation of quantum field theories, variants of the flexible renormalization group methods are discussed in detail. Since, according to our present-day knowledge, all fundamental interactions in nature are described by gauge theories, the remaining chapters of the book deal with gauge theories without and with matter. This text is based on course-tested notes for graduate students and, as such, its style is essentially pedagogical, requiring only some basics of mathematics, statistical physics, and quantum field theory. Yet it also contains some more sophisticated concepts which may be useful to researchers in the field. Each chapter ends with a number of problems – guiding the reader to a deeper understanding of some of the material presented in the main text – and, in most cases, also features some listings of short, useful computer programs.

Special Relativity

Author: Valerio Faraoni
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319011073
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book offers an essential bridge between college-level introductions and advanced graduate-level books on special relativity. It begins at an elementary level, presenting and discussing the basic concepts normally covered in college-level works, including the Lorentz transformation. Subsequent chapters introduce the four-dimensional worldview implied by the Lorentz transformations, mixing time and space coordinates, before continuing on to the formalism of tensors, a topic usually avoided in lower-level courses. The book’s second half addresses a number of essential points, including the concept of causality; the equivalence between mass and energy, including applications; relativistic optics; and measurements and matter in Minkowski space-time. The closing chapters focus on the energy-momentum tensor of a continuous distribution of mass-energy and its co-variant conservation; angular momentum; a discussion of the scalar field of perfect fluids and the Maxwell field; and general coordinates. Every chapter is supplemented by a section with numerous exercises, allowing readers to practice the theory. These exercises constitute an essential part of the textbook, and the solutions to approximately half of them are provided in the appendix.

An Introduction to Relativistic Processes and the Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions

Author: Carlo M. Becchi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319061305
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book offers a self-contained introduction to the theory of electroweak interactions based on the semi-classical approach to relativistic quantum field theory, with thorough discussion of key aspects of the field. The basic tools for the calculation of cross sections and decay rates in the context of relativistic quantum field theory are reviewed in a short, but complete and rigorous, presentation. Special attention is focused on relativistic scattering theory and on calculation of amplitude in the semi-classical approximation. The central part of the book is devoted to an illustration of the unified field theory of electromagnetic and weak interactions as a quantum field theory with spontaneously broken gauge invariance; particular emphasis is placed on experimental confirmations of the theory. The closing chapters address the most recent developments in electroweak phenomenology and provide an introduction to the theory and phenomenology of neutrino oscillations. In this 2nd edition the discussion of relativistic scattering processes in the semi-classical approximation has been revised and as a result intermediate results are now explicitly proven. Furthermore, the recent discovery of the Higgs boson is now taken into account throughout the book. In particular, the Higgs decay channel into a pair of photons, which has played a crucial role in the discovery, is discussed. As in the first edition, the accent is still on the semi-classical approximation. However, in view of the necessity of a discussion of H !, the authors give several indications about corrections to the semiclassical approximation. Violation of unitarity is discussed in more detail, including the dispersion relations as a tool for computing loop corrections; the above-mentioned Higgs decay channel is illustrated by means of a full one-loop calculation; and finally, loop effects on the production of unstable particles (such as the Z0 boson) are now discussed. Finally, the neutrino mass and oscillation analysis is updated taking into account the major achievements of the last years.

1000 Solved Problems in Modern Physics

Author: Ahmad A. Kamal
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642043338
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book is targeted mainly to the undergraduate students of USA, UK and other European countries, and the M. Sc of Asian countries, but will be found useful for the graduate students, Graduate Record Examination (GRE), Teachers and Tutors. This is a by-product of lectures given at the Osmania University, University of Ottawa and University of Tebrez over several years, and is intended to assist the students in their assignments and examinations. The book covers a wide spectrum of disciplines in Modern Physics, and is mainly based on the actual examination papers of UK and the Indian Universities. The selected problems display a large variety and conform to syllabi which are currently being used in various countries. The book is divided into ten chapters. Each chapter begins with basic concepts containing a set of formulae and explanatory notes for quick reference, followed by a number of problems and their detailed solutions. The problems are judiciously selected and are arranged section-wise. The so- tions are neither pedantic nor terse. The approach is straight forward and step-- step solutions are elaborately provided. More importantly the relevant formulas used for solving the problems can be located in the beginning of each chapter. There are approximately 150 line diagrams for illustration. Basic quantum mechanics, elementary calculus, vector calculus and Algebra are the pre-requisites.

Physics from Symmetry

Author: Jakob Schwichtenberg
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319666312
Format: PDF, Docs
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This is a textbook that derives the fundamental theories of physics from symmetry. It starts by introducing, in a completely self-contained way, all mathematical tools needed to use symmetry ideas in physics. Thereafter, these tools are put into action and by using symmetry constraints, the fundamental equations of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Electromagnetism, and Classical Mechanics are derived. As a result, the reader is able to understand the basic assumptions behind, and the connections between the modern theories of physics. The book concludes with first applications of the previously derived equations. Thanks to the input of readers from around the world, this second edition has been purged of typographical errors and also contains several revised sections with improved explanations.

Local Quantum Physics

Author: Rudolf Haag
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642614582
Format: PDF, ePub
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The new edition provided the opportunity of adding a new chapter entitled "Principles and Lessons of Quantum Physics". It was a tempting challenge to try to sharpen the points at issue in the long lasting debate on the Copenhagen Spirit, to assess the significance of various arguments from our present vantage point, seventy years after the advent of quantum theory, where, after ali, some problems appear in a different light. It includes a section on the assumptions leading to the specific mathematical formalism of quantum theory and a section entitled "The evolutionary picture" describing my personal conclusions. Alto gether the discussion suggests that the conventional language is too narrow and that neither the mathematical nor the conceptual structure are built for eter nity. Future theories will demand radical changes though not in the direction of a return to determinism. Essential lessons taught by Bohr will persist. This chapter is essentially self-contained. Some new material has been added in the last chapter. It concerns the char acterization of specific theories within the general frame and recent progress in quantum field theory on curved space-time manifolds. A few pages on renor malization have been added in Chapter II and some effort has been invested in the search for mistakes and unclear passages in the first edition. The central objective of the book, expressed in the title "Local Quantum Physics", is the synthesis between special relativity and quantum theory to gether with a few other principles of general nature.

Modern Introductory Physics

Author: Charles H. Holbrow
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387790799
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Thisbookgrewoutof anongoing e?orttomodernizeColgate University’s three-term,introductory,calculus-level physicscourse. Thebookisforthe ?rst term of this course and is intended to help ?rst-year college students make a good transition from high-school physics to university physics. Thebookconcentrates onthephysicsthatexplainswhywebelievethat atoms exist and have the properties we ascribe to them. This story line, which motivates much of our professional research, has helped us limit the material presented to a more humane and more realistic amount than is presented in many beginning university physics courses. The theme of atoms also supports the presentation of more non-Newtonian topics and ideas than is customary in the ?rst term of calculus-level physics. We think it is important and desirable to introduce students sooner than usual to some of the major ideas that shape contemporary physicists’ views of the nature and behavior of matter. Here in the second decade of the twenty-?rst century such a goal seems particularly appropriate. The quantum nature of atoms and light and the mysteries associated with quantum behavior clearly interest our students. By adding and - phasizing more modern content, we seek not only to present some of the physics that engages contemporary physicists but also to attract students to take more physics. Only a few of our beginning physics students come to us sharply focused on physics or astronomy. Nearly all of them, h- ever, have taken physics in high school and found it interesting.