Hypoxia and Cancer

Author: Giovanni Melillo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461491673
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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​​​The imbalance between rapidly proliferating tumor cells and inadequate and inefficient tumor vasculature leads to a decrease in oxygen levels (hypoxia and/or anoxia) in tumor tissues. Intra-tumor hypoxia profoundly affects the biological behavior of cancer cells, which become resistant to conventional therapies and acquire a more invasive and metastatic phenotype. Hypoxia is a hallmark of the malignant phenotype and a key feature of the tumor microenvironment. Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator of the transcriptional response to oxygen deprivation. HIF triggers the expression of genes whose products induce angiogenesis, decrease oxygen consumption, switch metabolism to glycolysis, maintain a stem cell phenotype and select for more invasive and metastatic cells. Therapeutic approaches targeting HIF, directly or downstream mediators of its transcriptional activity, are being developed. Intra-tumor hypoxia is a topic has been gaining scientific interest over the last few years for its wide involvement in many physiological and pathological processes. This volume will cover the latest research and translational aspects associated with intra-tumor hypoxia, along with opportunities for drug development offered by this unique feature of the tumor microenvironment. The ongoing efforts to translate our understanding of the biology underlying intra-tumor hypoxia in viable therapeutic options face many challenges, but this book will provide an opportunity for an in-depth analysis of the fundamental mechanisms implicated in the adaption to low oxygen levels and will scrutinize the potential for opportunities that are being pursued in both research and the drug development industry.

Diverse Effects of Hypoxia on Tumor Progression

Author: M. Celeste Simon
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642133299
Format: PDF
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Hypoxia, defined as reduced oxygen tension, is a common physiological phenomenon in both normal embryonic development and malignancy progression. Although severe hypoxia is generally toxic for both normal tissue and tumors, neoplastic cells gradually adapt to prolonged hypoxia though additional genetic and genomic changes with a net result that hypoxia promotes tumor progression and therapeutic resistance. Hypoxia promotes cancer progression by regulating various aspects of cancer biology, including radiotherapy resistance, metabolism, angiogenesis and invasion/migration

Tumor Hypoxia

Author: Zhong Yun
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813147334
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Tumors often start out as a benign growth, but gradually progress toward the malignant stage over a relatively long period of time. Tumor progression results from accumulated genetic mutations and inheritable epigenetic modifications that enable clonal evolution and selection of new clonal populations of tumor cells with aggressive characteristics including metastasis and therapy resistance. Increasing amounts of experimental evidence suggests that tumor microenvironment play a significant role in directing clonal evolution and determining clonal cell fate, which eventually leads to emergence of malignant tumor cell clones. Hypoxia is the most commonly observed feature of tumor microenvironment. Tumor hypoxia is significantly associated with malignant progression and predicts poor patient outcomes. This book provides detailed and up-to-date treaties on the role of hypoxia as a major driving force in tumor microenvironment to elicit cellular adaptation and clonal selection via genetic mutations and epigenetic modifications, to facilitate cancer stem cell maintenance, to enhance metastasis, to augment therapy resistance, and to evade immune surveillance.

Cancer Management in Small Animal Practice E Book

Author: Carolyn J. Henry
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 1437701981
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Cancer Management in Small Animal Practice provides you with all the tools needed to diagnose, stage, and manage the many different disease entities known as "cancer." This manual is designed to provide you with easy-to-access, clinically relevant details for complete care of the small animal cancer patient, while considering the needs, concerns, and capabilities of the client. It provides quick reference sections for information not included in current oncology texts, including drug interactions and resources for participation in clinical trials. All information is well referenced and the reference section on the accompanying website includes links to the original and related articles. The latest information including diagnostic procedures, treatment modalities, and outcome predictions to help clients make the best decisions for their pets. Expert contributors, renowned for clinical, as well as academic and research expertise, offer a wide breadth and depth of expertise. Full-color format provides accurate visual depictions of specific diseases and procedures to enhance your diagnostic capabilities. Key Points highlight critical information, enabling quick, easy access. Systems approach to diagnosis and management offers logical, systematic, head-to-tail procedure for accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Extensive discussions of supportive care limit adverse events and increase patient survival and puts emergency information at the practitioner’s fingertips. Suggested readings highlight the latest information for further investigation and research. Comprehensive drug safety guidelines thoroughly discuss all information required to safely handle and administer cancer drugs. Helpful drug formularies offer available formulations, recommended dosages, toxicities, and relative costs. Chapter on how to access clinical trials provides helpful information and hope for patients and their caregivers.

Tumor Hypoxia Impact in Tumorigenesis Diagnosis Prognosis and Therapeutics

Author: Christian R. Gomez
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889450643
Format: PDF, Docs
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Hypoxic regions have been identified within tumors and its presence has been linked to malignant progression, metastasis, resistance to therapy, and poor clinical outcomes following treatment. Acute and chronic hypoxia are integral components of tumor microenvironment and conduce to metabolic adaptations of tumor cells leading to genetic instability, intratumor heterogeneity and malignant progression. On the success of our fight against cancer, the continued adaptability of tumors to their microenvironmental stresses, such as hypoxia, must be considered. Tumor cells are endowed with a very high plasticity and capacity to adapt. It is our challenge to find populations and conditions of the tumor microenvironment germane for target success. Interdisciplinary work will be the key for achievement of these goals. This e-book is a compendium of original reports and review articles contributed by world-class experts in the field of tumor hypoxia. This material will be useful to foster discussion and increase understanding of the involvement of hypoxia in tumorigenesis, biomarker development, and therapeutics.

Trends in Ovarian Cancer Research

Author: A. P. Bardos
Publisher: Nova Publishers
ISBN: 9781594540233
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Ovarian cancer is cancer that begins in the cells that constitute the ovaries, including surface epithelial cells, germ cells, and the sex cord-stromal cells. Cancer cells that metastasize from other organ sites to the ovary (most commonly breast or colon cancers) are not then considered ovarian cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, ovarian cancer accounts for 4 percent of all cancers among women and ranks fifth as a cause of their deaths from cancer. The American Cancer Society statistics for ovarian cancer estimate that there will be 25,400 new cases and 14,300 deaths in 2003. The death rate for this disease has not changed much in the last 50 years. Unfortunately, almost 70 percent of women with the common epithelial ovarian cancer are not diagnosed until the disease is advanced in stage - i.e., has spread to the upper abdomen (stage III) or beyond (stage IV). The 5-year survival rate for these women is only 15 to 20 percent, whereas the 5-year survival rate for stage I disease patients approaches 90 percent and for stage II disease patients approaches 70 percent. from and whether the tumor is benign or cancerous. The three main types of ovarian tumors are: Epithelial Tumors, Germ Cell Tumors and Stromal Tumors. This new book brings together new and leading-edge research from around the world.

PET Imaging of the Head and Neck An Issue of PET Clinics E Book

Author: Min Yao
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 1455747041
Format: PDF
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PET/CT is an integral part of the evaluation of patients who have head and neck cancer. In this issue, the state of the art in PET/CT imaging is discussed. The issue starts with an overview of FDG-PET/CT, PET and MRI for normal anatomy, including pitfalls and artifacts. This topic is followed by a review of FDG-PET/CT for initial and subsequent therapy evaluation; progressing to PET and MRI. Other articles discuss SUV as a prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, PET in head and neck cancer radiotherapy treatment planning, PET in decision making for neck dissection after radiation treatment, and newer methods for improving yield from FDG-PET imaging for accurate staging, determining tumor biology, and assessing prognosis. The issue focuses on some of the most cutting-edge applications, such as new tracers PET in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (including FLT and hypoxia imaging). PET scans in thyroid cancer is also discussed.

Tumor Hypoxia Impact in Tumorigenesis Diagnosis Prognosis and Therapeutics

Author: Christian R. Gomez
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889450643
Format: PDF, ePub
Download and Read
Hypoxic regions have been identified within tumors and its presence has been linked to malignant progression, metastasis, resistance to therapy, and poor clinical outcomes following treatment. Acute and chronic hypoxia are integral components of tumor microenvironment and conduce to metabolic adaptations of tumor cells leading to genetic instability, intratumor heterogeneity and malignant progression. On the success of our fight against cancer, the continued adaptability of tumors to their microenvironmental stresses, such as hypoxia, must be considered. Tumor cells are endowed with a very high plasticity and capacity to adapt. It is our challenge to find populations and conditions of the tumor microenvironment germane for target success. Interdisciplinary work will be the key for achievement of these goals. This e-book is a compendium of original reports and review articles contributed by world-class experts in the field of tumor hypoxia. This material will be useful to foster discussion and increase understanding of the involvement of hypoxia in tumorigenesis, biomarker development, and therapeutics.

Nitric Oxide NO and Cancer

Author: Benjamin Bonavida
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441914323
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Nitric Oxide (NO) is a pleitropic, ubiquitous modulator of cellular functions. Aryl nitrite and glyceryl trinitrate, representative intravasadilators, were introduced as therapeutic agents more than a century ago for relief from acute attacks of angina. The vasodilator action is mediated by the release of NO following treatment. NO has important therapeutic applications in several diseases such as inflammatory diseases, erectile dysfunction, inflammation, pain and neural protective activity. However, the role of NO in cancer and its application in therapy has received little attention. This monograph will be the first to focus on studies that investigate the role of NO in tumor cell pathogenesis, growth, angiogenesis, response to cytotoxic therapies and NO translational applications in cancer therapy, alone or in conjunction with other therapies.

Vegf and Cancer

Author: Judith H. Harmey
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780306479885
Format: PDF, ePub
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VEGF and Canceris a comprehensive and up to date review of current knowledge on the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cancer. Key Features: -Discussion of VEGF as potent angiogenic factor and its role in tumor angiogenesis, -Review of the biology, molecular properties and regulation of VEGF, -Discussion of the role of VEGF in a range of different tumor types, both solid tumors and haematological cancers, -Review of the therapeutic potential of different approaches to block VEGF, -Review of recent evidence that in addition to its role as an endothelial cell mitogen, VEGF may also be an autocrine growth factor for tumor cells, regulating survival and invasion. This book is aimed at scientists new to angiogenesis and VEGF biology and provides new information for established researchers and scientists. It will also be a useful text for clinicians interested in anti-angiogenic therapy for treatment of human cancers.