GIS Environmental Modeling and Engineering Second Edition

Author: Allan Brimicombe
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439808726
Format: PDF
Download and Read
Spatial dimensions need to be properly captured if modeling and engineering techniques are to be successfully applied in addressing environmental problems. The links between the geographical information systems (GIS) that capture this data, simulation modeling, and engineering offer tremendous possibilities for building versatile support systems for managing the environment. GIS, Environmental Modeling and Engineering focuses on using GIS and external models to solve real environmental problems, promoting the critical thinking needed for the effective applications of these systems and their analytical outputs. Divided into three major sections, this textbook first concentrates on defining GIS, identifying how data is structured, and explaining common functionality. The text examines GIS from a technological perspective, exploring the evolution of its scientific basis and its synergies with other technologies within a geocomputational paradigm. The next section explores modeling from a neutral scientific perspective in its role of simulating phenomena, as well as from a more specific perspective in its role within environmental science and engineering. The third and largest section looks at how GIS and simulation modeling are joined. It provides case studies and covers issues such as interoperability, data quality, model validity, space-time dynamics, and decision-support systems. This volume provides seniors and postgraduate students with a structured, coherent text that goes beyond introductory subject matter by enabling readers to think critically about the data acquisition process and the results they get from the technology.

Error Propagation in Environmental Modelling with GIS

Author: Gerard B.M. Heuvelink
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203016114
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download and Read
GIS users and professionals are aware that the accuracy of GIS results cannot be naively based on the quality of the graphical output. Data stored in a GIS will have been collected or measured, classified, generalised, interpreted or estimated, and in all cases this allows the introduction of errors.; With the processing of translation of this data into the GIS itself further propagation or amplification or errors also occur. It is essential that GIS professionals understand these issues systematically if they are to build ever more accurate systems.; In this book the authors decade of study into these problems is brought into focus with an account of the development, application and implementation of error propagation techniques for use in environmental modelling with GIS. Its purpose is to provide a methodology for handling error and error propagation.

Environmental Modelling with GIS and Remote Sensing

Author: Andrew Skidmore
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203302214
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download and Read
Most government agencies and private companies are investing significant resources in the production and use of geographical data. The capabilities of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for data analysis are also improving, to the extent that the potential performance of GIS software and the data available for analysis outstrip the abilities of managers and analysts to use and analyze the information. This is especially true for environmental applications. Here the need to keep up-to-date is essential for providing effective and efficient services. Environmental Modeling with GIS and Remote Sensing derives from a training course run by ITC for professionals and managers in the environmental sciences, detailing the applications of remote sensing and GIS for environmental modeling and assessment. It sets out the current research results and provides operational methods for environmental mapping and monitoring.

Local Models for Spatial Analysis Second Edition

Author: Christopher D. Lloyd
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439829233
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download and Read
Written in recognition of developments in spatial data analysis that focused on differences between places, the first edition of Local Models for Spatial Analysis broke new ground with its focus on local modelling methods. Reflecting the continued growth and increased interest in this area, the second edition describes a wide range of methods which account for local variations in geographical properties. What’s new in the Second Edition: Additional material on geographically-weighted statistics and local regression approaches A better overview of local models with reference to recent critical reviews about the subject area Expanded coverage of individual methods and connections between them Chapters have been restructured to clarify the distinction between global and local methods A new section in each chapter references key studies or other accounts that support the book Selected resources provided online to support learning An introduction to the methods and their underlying concepts, the book uses worked examples and case studies to demonstrate how the algorithms work their practical utility and range of application. It provides an overview of a range of different approaches that have been developed and employed within Geographical Information Science (GIScience). Starting with first principles, the author introduces users of GISystems to the principles and application of some widely used local models for the analysis of spatial data, including methods being developed and employed in geography and cognate disciplines. He discusses the relevant software packages that can aid their implementation and provides a summary list in Appendix A. Presenting examples from a variety of disciplines, the book demonstrates the importance of local models for all who make use of spatial data. Taking a problem driven approach, it provides extensive guidance on the selection and application of local models.

GIS and Environmental Modeling

Author: Michael F. Goodchild
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470236772
Format: PDF, Docs
Download and Read
GIS and Environmental Modeling: Progress and Research Issues Michael F. Goodchild, Louis T. Steyaert, Bradley O. Parks, Carol Johnston, David Maidment, Michael Crane, and Sandi Glendinning, Editors With growing pressure on natural resources and landscapes there is an increasing need to predict the consequences of any changes to the environment. Modelling plays an important role in this by helping our understanding of the environment and by forecasting likely impacts. In recent years moves have been made to link models to Geographical Information Systems to provide a means of analysing changes over an area as well as over time. GIS and Environmental Modeling explores the progress made to date in integrating these two software systems. Approaches to the subject are made from theoretical, technical as well as data stand points. The existing capabilities of current systems are described along with important issues of data availability, accuracy and error. Various case studies illustrate this and highlight the common concepts and issues that exist between researchers in different environmental fields. The future needs and prospects for integrating GIS and environmental models are also explored with developments in both data handling and modelling discussed. The book brings together the knowledge and experience of over 100 researchers from academic, commercial and government backgrounds who work in a wide range of disciplines. The themes followed in the text provide a fund of knowledge and guidance for those involved in environmental modelling and GIS. The book is easily accessible for readers with a basic GIS knowledge and the ideas and results of the research are clearly illustrated with both colour and black and white graphics.

Spatial Analysis

Author: Paul A. Longley
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470236154
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download and Read
Spatial Analysis: Modelling in a GIS Environment Edited by Paul Longley and Michael Batty Digital data and information are used increasingly by academics, professionals, local authorities, and government departments. Powerful new technologies, such as geographic information systems (GIS), are being developed to analyse such data, and GIS technologies are rapidly becoming part of the emergent world digital infrastructure. This book shows how computer methods of analysis and modelling, built around GIS, can be used to identify ways in which our cities and regions might be better planned and understood. The contributors to this book are all actively involved in research using geographic information systems. This book will be valuable reading for: * Geographers, researchers, and regional analysts * Population theorists and regional economists with interests in large-scale demographic and employment data * Planners and policy-makers who wish to use GIS to improve their decision making * Business analysts who wish to explore markets using the most recent advances in digital spatial data technology * All those interested in geodemographics Paul Longley is Professor of Geography at the Department of Geography, University of Bristol, United Kingdom. Michael Batty is Professor of Spatial Analysis and Planning at the University College London. United Kingdom.

GIS Technology Applications in Environmental and Earth Sciences

Author: Bai Tian
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498776051
Format: PDF, ePub
Download and Read
This book starts with an overview of GIS technology, what GIS technology is, what it can do, what software products are available, etc. Then, throughout the book, the author explains with many case studies, programs, maps, graphics, and 3D models how GIS and other related technologies can be used to automate mapping processes, collect, process, edit, store, manage, and share datasets, statistically analyze data, model, and visualize large datasets to understand patterns, trends, and relationships to make educated decisions. This book is an excellent resource for anyone who is interested in GIS and related technologies, geology, natural resource, and environmental science.

GIS and Geocomputation for Water Resource Science and Engineering

Author: Barnali Dixon
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118354141
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download and Read
The purpose of this book is to bridge the gap between the fundamentals of GIS and applications of this technology to the practice of environmental engineering and science. Students are provided a complete picture of GIS including data availability and fundamental spatial analysis techniques using hands-on environmental applications. A series of case-studies are used to demonstrate how GIS can enhance environmental science and engineering design and analysis. This combination of active GIS learning supplemented with case-study based reinforcement helps the student (and the practitioner) not only understand the fundamental concepts but also see how they can be used in real-world applications. This book will encompass a broad range of topics that will comprehensively cover both the fundamental and applied aspects of geographic information systems (GIS), with a specific focus on environmental and water resources applications. By providing a focus on coupling GIS with other innovative information-theoretic tools such as fuzzy logic, neural networks and support vector machines the book will demonstrate how these GIS technologies can be used to harness increasingly available digital data to develop spatially-oriented sustainable solutions. This textbook aims to: (i) Introduce foundations of spatial analysis including raster and vector representations and relational databases. (ii) Integrate environmental modeling and GIS concepts. (iii) Discuss benefits and challenges of environmental and water resources GIS applications, including a thorough discussion on estimation accuracy, precision, scaling and data consistency issues. (iv) Demonstrate advanced GIS skills related to terrain and network analysis. (v) Include a chapter on three dimensional visualization and integrating with remote-sensing data. (vi) Combine environmental GIS applications with other information-theoretic approaches such as artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic. A series of case-studies are used to demonstrate how GIS can enhance environmental science and engineering design and analysis. This combination of active GIS learning supplemented with case-study based reinforcement helps the student (and the practitioner) not only understand the fundamental concepts but also see how they can be used in real-world applications. This proposed book package (including web-based materials) will include power-point lecture outlines; outlines for a potential syllabus (a semester-long) course at the undergraduate and graduate levels; data for applications and example exercises and software-based instructions for the case studies. This information should facilitate the hands-on learning approach to be adopted in the text. The authors note.. If someone does not have access to GIS in the classroom (as in many developing nations) they can still learn the theory of GIS and its application through case studies for environmental and watershed modeling and management. This means students can be tested on the theory if they use this book as a text – yet they will have the opportunity to develop limited understanding of applications (despite the lack of software). The textbook will not emphasize a particular GIS software, so the examples and knowledge gained can be applied with any GIS software and there are a few free GIS software that students and faculty in developing countries can use along with the text. We will provide a list of free software (open source) (for GIS as well as AI tools – such as Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks, Neuro-fuzzy and Support Vector Machines).

Modelling Urban Development with Geographical Information Systems and Cellular Automata

Author: Yan Liu
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420059908
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download and Read
Urban development and migration from rural to urban areas are impacting prime agricultural land and natural landscapes, particularly in the less developed countries. These phenomena will persist and require serious study by those monitoring global environmental change. To address this need, various models have been devised to analyze urbanization and the physical, socioeconomic, and institutional factors impacting urban development. The most promising and rapidly developing of these paradigms take advantage of new Geographical Information System (GIS) technology. Modelling Urban Development with Geographical Information Systems and Cellular Automata presents one such cutting-edge model that is more than just predictive. It describes how the model simulates the urbanization process, and it provides theoretical context to promote understanding. Starting with a practical overview of the modelling techniques used in urban development research, the author focuses on the cellular automata model and its greatest strength – the incorporation of fuzzy set and fuzzy logic approaches through which urban development can be viewed as a spatially and temporally continuous process. Real-Life Application to Develop Future Planning Methods The text describes a landmark study underway, in which the fuzzy constrained cellular automata model has been implemented in a GIS environment to simulate urban development in Sydney, Australia. Featuring a survey of associated research and a geographical database for the Sydney simulation, this book answers many general "what if" questions for urban planners and details a new approach that they can adapt to their own testing and evaluation needs. This modeling method will provide researchers and planners with the means to not just predict population trends, but to better prepare for their consequences.