Fluorine and the Environment Agrochemicals Archaeology Green Chemistry and Water

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Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080465616
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Advances in Fluorine Science is a new book series presenting critical multidisciplinary overviews on areas in which fluorine and fluoride compounds have a decisive impact. The individual volumes of Advances in Fluorine Science are thematic, addressing comprehensively both the science and applications on topics including the Environment, Green chemistry, Medicine, Health & Life Sciences, New Technologies & Materials Science, Energy and the Earth Sciences. In the present volume, the key-position of fluoro-products in agriculture is reviewed, since a large percentage of agro-chemicals and pesticides contain at least one fluorine atom. However, improvements in the use of fluorine-based products in agrochemicals cannot be developed without taking into consideration a safer environment, on both levels of greener synthesis routes and a reduction of the negative impact on plants and organisms. Within this scope, fluorine has a very peculiar place, since its high reactivity yields several advantages, for instance in by-passing various polluting multi-step reactions. Fluorine-based materials are reviewed as efficient tools for protecting our cultural heritage. Also using up-to-date techniques such as ion beam analysis, this element can help relative dating applications, ranging from burial durations of archaeological bones and teeth to the determination of exposure ages of meteorites on the Antarctic ice shield. Providing an original approach of the complex relationships between chemistry and the environment Reviewing the key-position of fluoro-products in agriculture Multidisciplinary contributions from chemists, geologists, biologists, environmentalists and industry staffs

Fluorine and Health

Author: Alain Tressaud
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080558110
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Fluorine and Health presents a critical multidisciplinary overview on the contribution of fluorinated compounds to resolve the important global issue of medicinal monitoring and health care. The involved subjects are organized in three thematic parts devoted to Molecular Imaging, Biomedical Materials and Pharmaceuticals. Initially the key-position of partially fluorinated low molecular weight compounds labelled either with the natural 19F-isotope for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or labelled with the radioactive [18F]-isotope for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is highlighted. Both non-invasive methods belong to the most challenging in vivo imaging techniques in oncology, neurology and in cardiology for the diagnosis of diseases having the highest mortality in the industrialized countries. The manifold facets of fluorinated biomaterials range from inorganic ceramics to perfluorinated organic molecules. Liquid perfluorocarbons are suitable for oxygen transport and as potential respiratory gas carriers, while fluorinated polymers are connected to the pathology of blood vessels. Another important issue concerns the application of highly fluorinated liquids in ophthalmology. Moreover, fluorine is an essential trace element in bone mineral, dentine and tooth enamel and is applied for the prophylaxis and treatment of dental caries. The various origins of human exposure to fluoride species is detailed to promote a better understanding of the effect of fluoride species on living organisms. Medicinally relevant fluorinated molecules and their interactions with native proteins are the main focus of the third part. New molecules fluorinated in strategic position are crucial for the development of pharmaceuticals with desired action and optimal pharmacological profile. Among the hundreds of marketed active drug components there are more than 150 fluorinated compounds. The chapters will illustrate how the presence of fluorine atoms alters properties of bioactive compounds at various biochemical steps, and possibly facilitate its emergence as pharmaceuticals. Finally the synthetic potential of a fluorinase, the first C-F bond forming enzyme, is summarized. - New approach of topics involving chemistry, biology and medicinal techniques - Transdisciplinar papers on fluoride products - Importance of fluoride products in health - Updated data on specific topics

Green Organic Chemistry in Lecture and Laboratory

Author: Andrew P. Dicks
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439840768
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The last decade has seen a huge interest in green organic chemistry, particularly as chemical educators look to "green" their undergraduate curricula. Detailing published laboratory experiments and proven case studies, this book discusses concrete examples of green organic chemistry teaching approaches from both lecture/seminar and practical perspectives. The experienced contributors address such topics as the elimination of solvents in the organic laboratory, organic reactions under aqueous conditions, organic reactions in non-aqueous media, greener organic reagents, waste management/recycling strategies, and microwave technology as a greener heating tool. This reference allows instructors to directly incorporate material presented in the text into their courses. Encouraging a stimulating organic chemistry experience, the text emphasizes the need for undergraduate education to: Focus on teaching sustainability principles throughout the curriculum Be flexible in the teaching of green chemistry, from modification of an existing laboratory experiment to development of a brand-new course Reflect modern green research areas such as microwave reactivity, alternative reaction solvents, solvent-free chemistry, environmentally friendly reagents, and waste disposal Train students in the "green chemistry decision-making" process Integrating recent research advances in green chemistry research and the Twelve Principles of Organic Chemistry into the lecture and laboratory environments, Green Organic Chemistry in Lecture and Laboratory highlights smaller, more cost-effective experiments with minimized waste disposal and reduced reaction times. This approach develops a fascinating and relevant undergraduate organic laboratory experience while focusing on real-world applications and problem-solving.

Modern Synthesis Processes and Reactivity of Fluorinated Compounds

Author: Henri Groult
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128037903
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Modern Synthesis Processes and Reactivity of Fluorinated Compounds focuses on the exceptional character of fluorine and fluorinated compounds. This comprehensive work explores examples taken from all classes of fluorine chemistry and illustrates the extreme reactivity of fluorinating media and the peculiar synthesis routes to fluorinated materials. The book provides advanced and updated information on the latest synthesis routes to fluorocompounds and the involved reaction mechanisms. Special attention is given to the unique reactivity of fluorine and fluorinated media, along with the correlation of those properties to valuable applications of fluorinated compounds. Contains quality content edited, and contributed, by leading scholars in the field Presents applied guidance on the preparation of original fluorinated compounds, potentially transferable from the lab scale to industrial applications Provides practical synthesis information for a wide audience interested in fluorine compounds in many branches of chemistry, materials science, and physics

Modern Methods in Crop Protection Research

Author: Peter Jeschke
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527655921
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This handbook and ready reference highlights a couple of basic aspects of recently developed new methods in modern crop protection research, authored by renowned experts from major agrochemical companies. Organized into four major parts that trace the key phases of the compound development process, the first section addresses compound design, while the second covers newly developed methods for the identification of the mode of action of agrochemical compounds. The third part describes methods used in improving the bioavailability of compounds, and the final section looks at modern methods for risk assessment. As a result, the agrochemical developer will find here a valuable toolbox of advanced methods, complete with first-hand practical advice and copious examples from current industrial practice.

Messages d os Arch om trie du squelette animal et humain

Author: Marie BALASSE
Publisher: Archives contemporaines
ISBN: 2813001643
Format: PDF, ePub
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Un poisson nage, un oiseau vole, un ongulé galope, un humain marche…grâce à un ensemble de muscles et de fonctions précises et complémentaires qui prennent appui sur une structure rigide, le squelette, dont l’organisation est partagée par tous ces êtres vivants, vertébrés. On peut rajouter aux os de ce squelette des éléments essentiels pour l’alimentation ou la défense : les dents. Os et dents résistent au passage du temps et à la décomposition du corps qui suit la mort des organismes. Ils peuvent se conserver très longtemps lorsque les conditions sont favorables. Ils deviennent alors des fossiles, témoins précieux de la vie du passé. Les restes squelettiques constituent des archives biologiques et environnementales, archives culturelles lorsqu’ils sont retrouvés dans un contexte archéologique, qui plus est lorsqu’ils ont été façonnés, transformés par l’homme. Ils sont porteurs d’autant de « messages » qui peuvent être décryptés par des approches archéométriques. L’archéométrie étudie, par des mesures instrumentées, des caractères le plus souvent inaccessibles à l’observation visuelle. Elle met en œuvre des connaissances et des méthodes relevant des sciences de la Terre et de la Vie, des sciences environnementales et de la physico-chimie, à des échelles d’observation allant de la macro- à la nanostructure. Toutes ces approches, sans cesse enrichies par les développements techniques et méthodologiques, ouvrent des perspectives largement renouvelées depuis une quinzaine d’années. Nous en présentons ici un instantané, avec pour objectif principal d’offrir un panorama de la diversité de ces approches, dans une démarche didactique présentant aussi bien les techniques et les méthodes, que les applications. Messages d’os est un manuel destiné à un large public curieux des enseignements que le squelette apporte à nos connaissances des communautés animales et sociétés humaines du passé. Os et dents, signes des temps passés…

Fluorine and the Environment

Author: Alain Tressaud
Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited
ISBN: 9780444528117
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Advances in Fluorine Science presents critical multidisciplinary overviews for areas in which fluorine and fluoride compounds have a decisive impact. The individual volumes of Advances in Fluorine Science are thematic, addressing comprehensively both the science and applications on topics including the Environment, Green chemistry, Medicine, Health & Life Sciences, New Technologies & Materials Science, Energy and the Earth Sciences. For each subject the contributors will clearly inform the reader on the nature of the problem (if any) and on the solutions, combining knowledge from different scientific disciplines, that have been proposed to solve each issue. This volume covers a wide scope of important issues about our atmospheric environment and contains contributions from both chemists and environmental scientists. Articles review the origin of fluorine-emissions either from natural or anthropogenic origin; the chemistry of fluorine- and halogen-based species in the atmosphere; the monitoring and characterization of atmospheric pollutants; new generations of halocarbons and improved destruction procedures of banned CFCs; the role of fluorides within both our geosphere: volcanic magmas and natural fluorine emissions, and effects on our biosphere: life cycle, plants and animals. * Examines the role of fluorine and fluoride products in our environment: from the geosphere to the atmosphere through the biosphere * Discusses the efforts of scientists and industry groups towards the improvement of environmental and sustainability issues * Multidisciplinary contributions from chemists, geologists, biologists, environmentalists and industry staffs

Green Chemistry and Catalysis

Author: R. A. Sheldon
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527611010
Format: PDF, Docs
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This first book to focus on catalytic processes from the viewpoint of green chemistry presents every important aspect: ? Numerous catalytic reductions and oxidations methods ? Solid-acid and solid-base catalysis ? C-C bond formation reactions ? Biocatalysis ? Asymmetric catalysis ? Novel reaction media like e.g. ionic liquids, supercritical CO2 ? Renewable raw materials Written by Roger A. Sheldon -- without doubt one of the leaders in the field with much experience in academia and industry -- and his co-workers, the result is a unified whole, an indispensable source for every scientist looking to improve catalytic reactions, whether in the college or company lab.

Pollution of Lakes and Rivers

Author: John P. Smol
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444307576
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Now in its second edition, Pollution of Lakes and Rivers provides essential insights into present-day water quality problems from an international perspective. Explains simply and effectively how lake sediments can be used to reconstruct pollution history Includes over 200 additional references and a new chapter on recent climatic change and its effects on water quality and quantity Tackles present-day water quality problems from an international perspective Previously published by Hodder Arnold PowerPoint slides of the artwork from the book are available from: http://post.queensu.ca/~pearl/textbook.htm Reviews: "This is a very well-written and wide-ranging volume that is both instructive and topical. It is likely to prove useful as an introduction to the general area, a reference source and for teaching purposes." (The Holocene, November 2008) "If you thought that paleolimnology was just mud, pollen, and diatoms then you will likely be both struck by the complexity of this field of research and grateful that John Smol, FRSC, has described it so clearly and broadly. Simply put, the second edition is an excellent book." ( Journal of Phycology, 2008) “This is a useful text. It provides a good level of detail so that the beginner in this area can appreciate what palaeolimnology can (and cannot) achieve. It goes beyond the simple introduction to provide a detailed understanding of how techniques can be applied ... This is a different take on the usual pollution text and would be of great use to those wishing to understand more from sedimentary records.” Taken from the British Ecological Society’s Teaching Ecology website "John Smol has extensive experience in this field of paleoenvironmental research which he combines well with his excellent written communication skills to produce a text that is easy to read but also thought provoking." (Quaternary Science Reviews, 2009) “The breadth of coverage in this text is impressive.” (Lake and Reservoir Management, 2009) “If I could speak with fluidity and clarity in my lectures as consistently as John Smol writes my students would be very grateful.” (Journal of Paleolimnology, 2009)

Analytical Chemistry in Archaeology

Author: A. M. Pollard
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521655729
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book is an introductory manual that explains the basic concepts of chemistry behind scientific analytical techniques and that reviews their application to archaeology. It explains key terminology, outlines the procedures to be followed in order to produce good data, and describes the function of the basic instrumentation required to carry out those procedures. The manual contains chapters on the basic chemistry and physics necessary to understand the techniques used in analytical chemistry, with more detailed chapters on Atomic Absorption, Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy, Neutron Activation Analysis, X-ray Flourescence, Electron Microscopy, Infra-red and Raman Spectroscopy, and Mass Spectrometry. Each chapter describes the operation of the instruments, some hints on the practicalities, and a review of the application of the technique to archaeology, including some case studies. With guides to further reading on the topic, it is an essential tool for practitioners, researchers and advanced students alike.