Cosmic Ray Astrophysics

Author: Reinhard Schlickeiser
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662048140
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In the first part, the book gives an up-to-date summary of the observational data. In the second part, it deals with the kinetic description of cosmic ray plasma. The underlying diffusion-convection transport equation, which governs the coupling between cosmic rays and the background plasma, is derived and analyzed in detail. In the third part, several applications of the solutions of the transport equation are presented and how key observations in cosmic ray physics can be accounted for is demonstrated.

Nonlinear Cosmic Ray Diffusion Theories

Author: Andreas Shalchi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642003095
Format: PDF, ePub
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If charged particles move through the interplanetary or interstellar medium, they interact with a large-scale magnetic ?eld such as the magnetic ?eld of the Sun or the Galactic magnetic ?eld. As these background ?elds are usually nearly constant in time and space, they can be approximated by a homogeneous ?eld. If there are no additional ?elds, the particle trajectory is a perfect helix along which the par- cle moves at a constant speed. In reality, however, there are turbulent electric and magnetic?elds dueto the interstellaror solar wind plasma. These ?elds lead to sc- tering of the cosmic rays parallel and perpendicular to the background ?eld. These scattering effects, which usually are of diffusive nature, can be described by s- tial diffusion coef?cients or, alternatively, by mean free paths. The knowledge of these parameters is essential for describing cosmic ray propagation as well as d- fusive shock acceleration. The latter process is responsible for the high cosmic ray energies that have been observed. The layout of this book is as follows. In Chap. 1, the general physical scenario is presented. We discuss fundamental processes such as cosmic ray propagation and acceleration in different systems such as the solar system or the interst- lar space. These processes are a consequence of the interaction between charged cosmic particles and an astrophysical plasma (turbulence). The properties of such plasmas are therefore the subject of Chap. 2.

Cosmic Rays in the Earth s Atmosphere and Underground

Author: Lev Dorman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402021135
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The present monograph as well as the next one (Dorman, M2005) is a result of more than 50 years working in cosmic ray (CR) research. After graduation in December 1950 Moscow Lomonosov State University (Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics Division, the Team of Theoretical Physics), my supervisor Professor D. I. Blokhintsev planned for me, as a winner of a Red Diploma, to continue my education as an aspirant (a graduate student) to prepare for Ph. D. in his very secret Object in the framework of what was in those time called the Atomic Problem. To my regret the KGB withheld permission, and I, together with other Jewish students who had graduated Nuclear Divisions of Moscow and Leningrad Universities and Institutes, were faced with a real prospect of being without any work. It was our good fortune that at that time there was being brought into being the new Cosmic Ray Project (what at that time was also very secret, but not as secret as the Atomic Problem), and after some time we were directed to work on this Project. It was organized and headed by Prof. S. N. Vernov (President of All-Union Section of Cosmic Rays) and Prof. N. V. Pushkov (Director of IZMIRAN); Prof. E. L. Feinberg headed the theoretical part of the Project.

Astrophysics

Author: Wolfgang Kundt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662043475
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Devised for a quantitative understanding of the physics of the universe from the solar system through the milky way to clusters of galaxies all the way to cosmology, this acclaimed text offers among the most concise and most critical ones of extant works. Special chapters are devoted to magnetic and radiation processes, disks, black-hole candidacy, bipolar flows, cosmic rays, gamma-ray bursts, image distortions, and special sources. At the same time, planet earth is viewed as the arena for life, with plants and animals having evolved to homo sapiens during cosmic time. This text is unique in covering the basic qualitative and quantitative tools, formulae as well as numbers, needed to for the precise interpretation of frontline phenomena.

Particles and Astrophysics

Author: Maurizio Spurio
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319080512
Format: PDF
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This book is an introduction to “multi-messenger” astrophysics. It covers the many different aspects connecting particle physics with astrophysics and cosmology and introduces astrophysics using numerous experimental findings recently obtained through the study of high-energy particles. Taking a systematic approach, it comprehensively presents experimental aspects from the most advanced laboratories and detectors, as well as the theoretical background. The book is aimed at graduate students and post-graduate researchers with a basic understanding of particle and nuclear physics. It will also be of interest to particle physicists working in accelerator/collider physics who are keen to understand the mechanisms of the largest accelerators in the Universe. The book draws on the extensive lecturing experience of Professor Maurizio Spurio from the University of Bologna.

Exotic Nuclei and Nuclear particle Astrophysics

Author: S. Stoica
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812700072
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This volume documents an important event in the World Year of Physics 2005 and a continuation of the traditional international summer schools that have taken place in Romania regularly since 1964. On one hand, the study of exotic nuclei seeks answers about the structure and interaction of unique finite quantum mechanical many-body systems. On the other, it provides data that have an impact on the understanding of the origin of the elements in the Universe.The contributions, written by outstanding professors from prestigious research centers over the world, provide the reader with both comprehensive reviews and the most recent results in the field. Large experimental facilities are discussed together with future research projects. The book offers insights into how experiments in terrestrial nuclear physics laboratories may be combined with observations in outer space to enlarge our basic knowledge.

Astrophysical Concepts

Author: Martin Harwit
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 147572019X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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My principal aim in writing this book was to present a wide range of astrophysical topics in sufficient depth to give the reader a general quantitative understanding of the subject. The book outlines cosmic events but does not portray them in detail-it provides aseries of astrophysical sketches. I think this approach befits the present uncertainties and changing views in astrophysics. The material is based on notes I prepared for a course aimed at seniors and beginning graduate students in physics and astronomy at Cornell. This course defined the level at which the book is written. For readers who are versed in physics but are unfamiliar with astronomical terminology, Appendix A is included. It gives a brief background of astronomical concepts and should be read before starting the main text. The first few chapters outline the scope of modern astrophysics and deal with elementary problems concerning the size and mass of cosmic objects. However, it soon becomes apparent that a broad foundation in physics is needed to proceed. This base is developed in Chapters 4 to 7 by using, as ex am pIes, specific astronomi cal situations. Chapters 8 to 10 enlarge on the topics first outlined in Chapter I and show how we can obtain quantitative insights into the structure and evolution of stars, the dynamics of co~mic gases, and the large-scale behavior of the universe.

High Energy Astrophysics

Author: Thierry J.-L. Courvoisier
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642309690
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, etc), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad basis on which they should be able to build the more specific knowledge they will need. While in the first part of the book the physical processes are described and derived in detail, the second part studies astrophysical objects in which high-energy astrophysics processes are crucial. This two-pronged approach will help students recognise physical processes by their observational signatures in contexts that may differ widely from those presented here.

The Universe in Gamma Rays

Author: Volker Schönfelder
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662045931
Format: PDF, Mobi
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After describing cosmic gamma-ray production and absorption, the instrumentation used in gamma-ray astronomy is explained. The main part of the book deals with astronomical results, including the somewhat surprising result that the gamma-ray sky is continuously changing.

Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology

Author: Peter Hoyng
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402045239
Format: PDF, ePub
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Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology offers a succinct and self-contained treatment of general relativity and its application to compact objects, gravitational waves and cosmology. The required mathematical concepts are introduced informally, following geometrical intuition as much as possible. The approach is theoretical, but there is ample discussion of observational aspects and of instrumental issues where appropriate. The book includes such topical issues as the Gravity Probe B mission, interferometer detectors of gravitational waves, and the physics behind the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Written for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students in (astro)physics, it is ideally suited for a lecture course and contains 140 exercises with extensive hints. The reader is assumed to be familiar with linear algebra and analysis, ordinary differential equations, special relativity, and basic thermal physics.