Conductor Insulator Quantum Phase Transitions

Author: Vladimir Dobrosavljevic
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199592594
Format: PDF
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When many particles come together how do they organize themselves? And what destroys this organization? Combining experiments and theory, this book describes intriguing quantum phases - metals, superconductors and insulators - and transitions between them. It captures the excitement and the controversies on topics at the forefront of research.

The Mott Metal Insulator Transition

Author: Florian Gebhard
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540614818
Format: PDF, Docs
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Little do we reliably know about the Mott transition, and we are far from a complete understanding of the metal --insulator transition due to electr- electron interactions. Mott summarized his basic ideas on the subject in his wonderful book Metal--Insulator nansitions that first appeared in 1974 11. 1). In his view, a Motk insulator displays a gap for charge-carrying excitations due to electron cowelations, whose importance is expressed by the presence of local magnetic moments regardless of whether or not they are ordered. Since the subject is far from being settled, different opinions on specific aspects of the Mott transition still persist. This book naturally embodies my own understanding of the phenomenon, inspired by the work of the late Sir Kevill Mott. The purpose of this book is twofold: first, to give a detailed presen- tion of the basic theoretical concopts for Mott insulators and, second, to test these ideas against the results from model calculations. For this purpose the Hubbard model and some of its derivatives are best suited. The Hubbard model describes a Mott transition with a mere minimum of tunable par- eters, and various exact statements and even exact solutions exist in certain limiting cases. Exact solutions not only allow us to test our basic ideas, but also help to assess the quality of approxin~ate theories for correlated electron systems.

Understanding Quantum Phase Transitions

Author: Lincoln Carr
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439802610
Format: PDF, ePub
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Quantum phase transitions (QPTs) offer wonderful examples of the radical macroscopic effects inherent in quantum physics: phase changes between different forms of matter driven by quantum rather than thermal fluctuations, typically at very low temperatures. QPTs provide new insight into outstanding problems such as high-temperature superconductivity and display fundamental aspects of quantum theory, such as strong correlations and entanglement. Over the last two decades, our understanding of QPTs has increased tremendously due to a plethora of experimental examples, powerful new numerical methods, and novel theoretical understanding of previously intractable quantum many-body problems. Understanding Quantum Phase Transitions organizes our current understanding of QPTs with an emphasis on examples from condensed matter physics. Bringing together 48 well known physicists involved with the theory and observation of QPTs, this unique work provides a thorough yet concise examination of the field. Each chapter takes readers through past discoveries right up through the latest research results, and then ends with open questions and unsolved problems. Part I treats new concepts and directions in QPTs, from dynamics through dissipation and entanglement, and includes introductory material suitable for scientists new to the field. Part II explores specific models, systems, and aspects of QPTs, including topological order, the Kondo lattice, the Jaynes-Cummings lattice, reduced dimensionality, finite-size effects and metastability, and QPTs in Bose-Einstein condensates. Part III covers experiments motivated by a deeper understanding of QPTs, including quantum dots, 2D electron systems, frustrated lattices in molecular antiferromagnets, heavy fermions, and ultracold atoms in optical lattices. Part IV presents advances in numerical methods used to study QPTs, including cluster Monte Carlo and the worm algorithm, matrix-product-state methods, and dynamical mean-field theory. Part V looks at the relevance of QPTs beyond condensed-matter physics, including their occurrence in neutron stars, the quark-gluon plasma, cavity QED systems, and string theory. Graduate students, post-doctoral researchers, and professional scientists who seek a deep knowledge of QPTs will all find this book very useful. Researchers in the field will enhance their appreciation of the incredible breadth of the subject in chapters covering material outside their specialties.

Electrodynamics of Quantum Critical Conductors and Superconductors

Author: Uwe Santiago Pracht
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319728024
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This thesis presents and discusses recent optical low-temperature experiments on disordered NbN, granular Al thin-films, and the heavy-fermion compound CeCoIn5, offering a unified picture of quantum-critical superconductivity. It provides a concise introduction to the respective theoretical models employed to interpret the experimental results, and guides readers through in-depth calculations supplemented with supportive figures in order to both retrace the interpretations and span the bridge between experiment and state-of-the art theory.

Quantum Phase Transitions

Author: Subir Sachdev
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521004541
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The first book to describe the theory of quantum phase transitions in condensed matter systems.

Physical Principles of Remote Sensing

Author: Gareth Rees
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 110700473X
Format: PDF, ePub
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A quantitative yet accessible introduction to remote sensing techniques, this new edition covers a broad spectrum of Earth science applications.

Strongly Correlated Electrons in Two Dimensions

Author: Sergey Kravchenko
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9814745383
Format: PDF, Docs
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The properties of strongly correlated electrons confined in two dimensions are a forefront area of modern condensed matter physics. In the past two or three decades, strongly correlated electron systems have garnered a great deal of scientific interest due to their unique and often unpredictable behavior. Two of many examples are the metallic state and the metal–insulator transition discovered in 2D semiconductors: phenomena that cannot occur in noninteracting systems. Tremendous efforts have been made, in both theory and experiment, to create an adequate understanding of the situation; however, a consensus has still not been reached. Strongly Correlated Electrons in Two Dimensions compiles and details cutting-edge research in experimental and theoretical physics of strongly correlated electron systems by leading scientists in the field. The book covers recent theoretical work exploring the quantum criticality of Mott and Wigner–Mott transitions, experiments on the metal–insulator transition and related phenomena in clean and dilute systems, the effect of spin and isospin degrees of freedom on low-temperature transport in two dimensions, electron transport near the 2D Mott transition, experimentally observed temperature and magnetic field dependencies of resistivity in silicon-based systems with different levels of disorder, and microscopic theory of the interacting electrons in two dimensions. Edited by Sergey Kravchenko, a prominent experimentalist, this book will appeal to advanced graduate-level students and researchers specializing in condensed matter physics, nanophysics, and low-temperature physics, especially those involved in the science of strong correlations, 2D semiconductors, and conductor–insulator transitions.

Scale Invariance

Author: Annick LESNE
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364215123X
Format: PDF
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During a century, from the Van der Waals mean field description (1874) of gases to the introduction of renormalization group (RG techniques 1970), thermodynamics and statistical physics were just unable to account for the incredible universality which was observed in numerous critical phenomena. The great success of RG techniques is not only to solve perfectly this challenge of critical behaviour in thermal transitions but to introduce extremely useful tools in a wide field of daily situations where a system exhibits scale invariance. The introduction of scaling, scale invariance and universality concepts has been a significant turn in modern physics and more generally in natural sciences. Since then, a new "physics of scaling laws and critical exponents", rooted in scaling approaches, allows quantitative descriptions of numerous phenomena, ranging from phase transitions to earthquakes, polymer conformations, heartbeat rhythm, diffusion, interface growth and roughening, DNA sequence, dynamical systems, chaos and turbulence. The chapters are jointly written by an experimentalist and a theorist. This book aims at a pedagogical overview, offering to the students and researchers a thorough conceptual background and a simple account of a wide range of applications. It presents a complete tour of both the formal advances and experimental results associated with the notion of scaling, in physics, chemistry and biology.

Advances in Solid State Physics

Author: Bernhard Kramer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540429074
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The 2002 Spring Meeting of the "Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft" was held in Regensburg from March 25th to 29th, 2002. The number of conference attendees has remained remarkably stable at about 2800, despite the decreas ing number of German PhD students. This can be taken as an indication that the program of the meeting was very attractive. The present volume of the "Advances in Solid State Physics" contains the written versions of most of the invited talks, also those presented as part of the Symposia. Most of these Symposia were organized by several divisions in collaboration and they covered fascinating selection of topics of current interest. I trust that the book reflects this year's status of the field in Germany. In particular, one notes a slight change in paradigms: from quantum dots and wires to spin transport and soft matter systems in the broadest sense. This seems to reflect the present general trend in physics. Nevertheless, a large portion of the invited papers as well as the discussions at the meeting concentrated on nanostrnctured matter.